Independent Study in Criminal Justice
Professor Val Mertens
November 20, 2011
Various forms of Trait Theories have been studied as being associated with Juvenile Delinquencies; “Developmental Theory is a view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by social experiences as well as individual characteristics. Developmental factors include biological, social, and psychological structures and processes (Larry Siegel 2011).” The fact that a potential Juvenile criminal; may first calculate the potential costs and benefits of a particular illegal act known as the “Rational Choice Theory” (Seigel L. J. (2011). However, the following questions remain:
* What propels youths to commit crimes?
* Complex influences of a variety of biological, genetic, and environmental factors, and further complicated; by various reactions to environmental factors. Are these theories actually proven? * Why is it that only a few individuals who experience the same environments as many others actually commit crime? The fact that there are relatively several studies indicating the causes of Juvenile delinquency. Additional theories have been discovered as other factors in the cause and effect of juvenile delinquency. Also there have been other Trait Theories discovered to represent grounds for Juvenile Delinquency. Criminological theories provide a scientific way to approach and understand why Juveniles commit crimes. The following factors have been reasons for many debates: Criminological Criterion: 1) Classical School Theories-Focus on individual free will and our ability to make choices as the central explanation for committing delinquency/crime (Bohm/Vogel 2011). 2) Positive School Theories- Embraces determinism and scientific method: Additionally, recognizing the role of forces that individuals cannot control or may not be aware of on crime and the role of science to discover what these factors are the positive school has 3 basic approaches: biological, psychological, and sociological. Why do Juveniles commit crime?
Based on the Positive School Theory, the following factors apply: I.Genetic processing of criminal tendencies.
IV.Developmental Theory (Biosocial Theories).
V.Environmental factors “age, sex, gender, and social status” (Lee Ellis 2011). Complex Influences:
Criminal offenses according to the FBI Uniform Crime Reporting System (UCR), Crime is determined in one of two ways: A) Part I Crimes: According to the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) are the most serious crimes reported by law enforcement officials. Commit serious property crime. B) Part II Crimes: Have less similarity in their reporting by each agency and represent the less serious (City of Eugene. 2010). Additionally, patterns of offending can be identified through the identification of behaviors related to offending directions determining the criminal pathways, and how many Juveniles adhere to criminal behavior when they get older (Keith Soothill & Brian Francis & Rachel Fligelstone (nd). Differences in Juveniles who commit crime compared to others of the same environment, ethnic background: Juveniles who commit criminal activities, do it for various reasons, including the Following: greed, anger, jealously, revenge, or pride. Although, some juveniles calculate a crime and carefully plan everything in advance to increase gain and decrease risk. They are making choices about their criminal behavior; even considering a life of crime better than obtaining a regular job- firmly believing that a life of crime has greater rewards, admiration, and excitement, until the point they are apprehended. Others may get a rush of adrenaline when successfully carrying out a dangerous crime. Others commit crimes on impulse, out of rage or fear....