Causes of Juvenile Delinquency

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 258
  • Published : April 23, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
Psyc 320 – Social Psychology

What is aggressive?
• • • • • • • • Justified or not Physical vs. Verbal Instrumental vs. Emotional Intentional vs. Unintentional Antisocial vs. Prosocial Sanctioned aggression Behavior vs. Feelings Direct vs. Indirect

Aggression & Conflict
Psychology 320 Social Psychology
Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides
1

2

Psyc 320 – Social Psychology

Psyc 320 – Social Psychology

Types of Aggression • 1) Instrumental Aggression aggression in order to obtain something of value (means to an end) • 2) Emotional Aggression - impulsive behavior intended solely to hurt another person (end in itself)

Killing in Defense of Self-Protection
Kahn, Andrews, & Head (1972)

80 70 60 Percentage 50 Strongly 40 Agreeing 30 20 10 0 self-def. def. Family def. House

South Non-South

3

4

Psyc 320 – Social Psychology

Psyc 320 – Social Psychology

Sources of Anger • Attack • Frustration • Expectation of Retaliation opportunity more anger • Attributions about intent

Social Learning - Behavior learned through observation or direct experience of punishment/rewards - Can increase or decrease aggression

5

6

1

Psyc 320 – Social Psychology

Psyc 320 – Social Psychology

Bobo
Amount of Aggression

Frustration-Aggression
• Frustration (blocking the attainment of a goal) always leads to a motive to aggress • When aggressive motive cannot be satisfied (situational constraints), can be temporarily inhibited • Displacement: aggressing against a substitute target • Catharsis: reduction of the motive to aggress after being aggressive or witnessing aggression • “Getting it out of one’s system”

High
Physical Verbal

Low
Neutral Violent

Model
7 8

Psyc 320 – Social Psychology

Psyc 320 – Social Psychology

Criticisms of F-A Hypothesis • Problems:
• a) Frustration does not always lead to an aggressive motive • b) Frustration not the only cause of aggression • c) Evidence for displacement is ambiguous • d) Little evidence for catharsis

Negative Affect Hypothesis
• Negative affect (not frustration) leads to aggression • Many possible sources of negative affect (frustration, physical pain, provocation) • 4 Stages of Process • 1. Unpleasant Experience (frustration, noxious stimuli, provocation) • 2. Negative Affect • 3. Trigger memory, thought, and motor response associations (fight or flight) • 4. Higher order cognitive processing (determine how one should feel and behave) 10

9

Psyc 320 – Social Psychology

Psyc 320 – Social Psychology

Negative Affect Hypothesis
• - Situational Cues Can Influence third and fourth stages (e.g., weapons effect; TV violence) • - What kinds of thoughts occur in fourth stage? - Attributions of Intent to Harm - Expectations of successful Aggression - Mitigating Information

Alcohol Myopia • alcohol restricts range of cues perceived and ability to process those cues (E.g., might notice provocation, but not realize mitigating circumstances)

11

12

2

Psyc 320 – Social Psychology

Psyc 320 – Social Psychology

Gender Differences • M > F overall • F> M for indirect forms of aggression

Common Couple Violence
• Women more likely than men to be violent (physically and verbally) in their relationships. • Women more likely to start aggressive acts. • 25% of couples say violence is a normal part of the relationship. • Men most likely to suffer due to societal constraints. • Homosexual couple violence very little support

13

14

Psyc 320 – Social Psychology

Psyc 320 – Social Psychology

Cues to Aggress

Berkowitz & LePage (1967)

Priming Aggression

Langley, O’Neal, Craig, & Yost (1992)

7 6 5 # of shocks 4 delivered 3 2 1 No Unassoc. objects Gun Assoc. Gun

Aggressive primes: insult, stab, anger Irrelevant: hold, zone, move Nonaggressive: praise, smile, jolly 7
Shocked 1 Shocked 7

6 5 Interest in 4 Watching 3 Films 2 1 0 Violent Film
15

Aggressive Irrelevant...
tracking img