Causes of conflict:
1) Competition for scarce natural resources
1) As countries need natural resources as a source of revenue and income for the country.
2) Natural resources are very important to a country as it could be sold for money, use in trade or as raw materials in furthering industrialization.
3) Thus it ensures the survival for the nation and thus countries would fight for it to ensure their own survival
4) this can be clearly seen from the Iceland-Britain conflict.
5) Iceland and Britain had been fighting for years over natural resources
6) Iceland has very few natural resources and depends on its fishing industry for survival.
7) However, in the 1970s, fish stocks especially cod fell by 1/3 because of the over fishing by Belgian, German and British fishermen in the seas around Iceland.
8) Thus Iceland wanted other countries to reduce the volume of their fish catches and suggested several ways to regulate fishing to the un conference on the law of sea even though most suggestions were ignored.
9) As 79% of Iceland’s total export comprises of fresh fish and fish products, it is very important for them to maintain sustainable levels of fish stocks in the seas around Iceland.
10) Thus when their source of economic survivals is threatened, Iceland had to fight to ensure that this source of natural resource is sustained. This conflict resulted in Iceland breaking off diplomatic ties with Britain
11) Thus showing that countries fight for natural resources as this natural resources could be their main form of revenue and survival. Losing their main source of revenue would mean jobs and livelihood at stake, possibly resulting in poverty and economy being negatively affected,
2) Different values and benefits
1) Countries come into conflict when hey feel that their value system is being threatened to protect their own value systems.
2) This is evident in the case of Korean war. Korea was divided into 2 halves at the 38th parallel after the Japanese surrendered in 1945.
3) Russian troops occupied territories north of the 38th parallel whereas American troops occupied territories south of parallel.
4) The attempt of UN to establish a single government for a reunited Korea failed as Ussr refused to allow an election in the north.
5) North Korea was then created and became a communist country whereas South Korea was a democratic country.
6) Governments of both Koreas each claimed the right to rule the whole Korean peninsula and there were frequent border clashes.
7) China afraid that their communist counterpart, north Korea would be taken over by the democratic south Korea and thus supported the north Korea in war to spread communism to south Korea.
8) This clearly showed that countries come into conflict to extend their value systems to other territories and also to protect their value systems from being threatened and taken over by a different value system, they fight back.
9) If a country loses a war to another country with a different value system, they risk losing how a county is governed and its way of life
10) Other countries of the same value systems will get involved in the conflict because they want to protect the country from being overtaken by countries of other ideologies as that would mean losing an allied
3) Competing claims over territory
1) Territorial disputes are very serious because land means a lot to a country. It will affect a country’s defense and national pride. Acquiring new territories means increased political power and supremacy.
2) An example would be the case of India and china.
3) As there were no clearly defined border between India and china, aksai chin plateau and north east frontier agency nefa became area of conflict.
4) In the late 1950s, china began to contest India’s presence in several localities along the border and in...
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