Causes, Consequences and Cures of Corruption in Pakistan

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statistical inference final project|
Causes, consequences and Cures of corruption in Pakistan|

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Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS1
ABSTRACT2
INTRODUCTION3
OBJECTIVES5
REVIEW OF LITERATURE6
Schooling or medium of Education is perhaps the sharpest divider of rural and urban Pakistan6
EDUCATION- an obituary6
Death of public sector schools7
Pakistan education system and PISA8
Primary education in rural areas10
Reforming our education system11
RESEARCH METHODOLGY13
RESULT & DISCUSSION15
APPLICATION ON THE DATA17
DISCUSSION31
CONCLUSION33
RECOMMENDATIONS35
REFERENCES37

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would like to thank the Almighty for empowering us with the zeal and persistence required to complete the project. We would also like to thank our ever helpful instructor, Sir Khalil ullah for his guidance throughout the project. ABSTRACT

We carried out the study to find out about the causes, consequences and cures of corruption in Pakistan. Corruption has been a menace for our country since the birth of this nation. Although, various steps have been taken by the governments in the past they have failed to achieve anything We had 100 questionnaires (50 males, 50 Females). We got them filled from students and teachers in Fast, and also from people from other occupations. The data we collected was analyzed through different tests of the spss software.

INTRODUCTION
“Corruption has its own motivations, and one has to thoroughly study that phenomenon and eliminate the foundations that allow corruption to exist.” Eduard Shevardnadze

“Corruption is worse than prostitution. The latter might endanger the morals of an individual; the former invariably endangers the morals of the entire country.” Karl Kraus

What is corruption?
The English dictionary defines the word as follows
1. Dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery. 2. The act of corrupting or of impairing integrity, virtue or moral principle; the state of being corrupted; loss of purity or integrity

Another useful definition of corruption “the intentional non-compliance with the arm’s-length principle aimed at deriving some advantage for oneself or for related individuals from this behavior (Tanzi. 1995, 167)

Further, the arm’s-length principle is defined as “The arm’s-length principle requires that personal or other relationships should play no role in economic decisions that involve more than one party (Tanzi, 1995:161)

History of corruption:
Corruption has existed in the world for a very long time. Since the transition from socialism, the world has been affected by this menace. Today corruption is worldwide and not at all limited to one country or region. It has clung to the human race like an incurable disease. Many came and tried to cure this disease, some of them succeeded to a little extent. Others failed miserably and corruption still lives! In a just and corruption-free society, only the investment of capital can yield favorable outcomes. Alas, through corruption and bribery we can ensure a rapid change in our financial status. Prevalence of corruption has created a general sense of discontent and mutiny among the poor, the working class and those who in spite of having the authority and resources despise corruption. Around 1500 years ago, the Roman Empire became weak when its rulers engaged in corruption. Countries that do not punish corrupt practices become weak and then collapse. A corrupt society is characterized by immorality, lack of self-respect and ethics. Corruption and economics have a very strong relationship. Unequal distribution of wealth, low wages and inflation are some of the economic causes of corruption.

Types of corruption:

There are many various kinds of corruption and surprisingly most of them do not convert into monetary terms which is very different to what comes in our minds when we think of the word...
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