CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF EARTHQUAKES, TSUNAMI AND CYCLONES
What are Earthquakes?
← An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. Earthquakes are measured with a seismometer; a device which also records is known as a seismograph. The moment magnitude (or the related and mostly obsolete Richter magnitude) of an earthquake is conventionally reported, with magnitude 3 or lower earthquakes being mostly imperceptible and magnitude 7 causing serious damage over large areas. Intensity of shaking is measured on the modified Mercalli scale.
← Usually associated with faulting or breaking of rocks
← Continuing adjustment of position results in aftershocks
Causes of earthquakes :
← Eruption of volcanoes
← Tectonic activity
← disturbance in the movement of plates
← under crust waves
← cracks in the plates.
Effects/impacts of earthquakes:
← Shaking and ground rupture
← Landslides and avalanches
← Soil liquefaction
← Tidal forces
← Human impacts :
Earthquakes may lead to disease, lack of basic necessities, loss of life, higher insurance premiums, general property damage, road and bridge damage, and collapse or destabilization (potentially leading to future collapse) of buildings. Earthquakes can also precede volcanic eruptions, which cause further problems; for example, substantial crop damage
EARTHQUAKE SAFETY MEASURES
DURING AN EARTHQUAKE:
• Stay away from windows, bookcases, file cabinets, heavy mirrors, and other heavy objects that could fall
• Duck under a desk or study table
• Watch for falling plaster or ceiling tiles
• Stay undercover until the shaking stops, and hold onto your cover
• If the desk or table you are under moves… move with it
• If in your car, stop, but not on a bridge, or under trees or a power line
• Don’t forget about aftershocks
After an Earthquake
← Be prepared for aftershocks, plan for cover when they occur
• Check for injuries, give first aid as necessary
• Wear shoes to avoid injury from broken glass
• Check for fire and take appropriate actions
• Check gas, water, and electric lines
Latest earthquake in India:
← Tsunami is a Japanese word meaning ‘harbor wave’. It is constituted with two syllables, Japanese language meaning harbor ("tsu", 津) and wave ("nami", 波).
← Tsunami is a wave train or series of waves generated, by impulsive disturbance that vertically displaces the water column, in water body. Earthquake, landslides, volcanic eruption, explosion and even the impact of cosmic bodies like meteorites commonly generate tsunami. Tsunami savagely attacks coastlines causing devastating property damage and loss of lives.
← Tsunami is one of the earth’s disaster. It was a Japanese word meaning “harbor wave,” used as the scientific term for a class of abnormal sea wave that can cause catastrophic damage when it hits a coastline.
← Tsunamis can be generated by an undersea earthquake, an undersea landslide, the eruption of an undersea volcano, or by the force of an asteroid crashing into the ocean.
HOW TSUNAMI OCCURS?
1. Tsunami can be generated when the see floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water.
2. Tectonic earthquakes are a particular kind of earthquake that are associated with the earth’s crustal deformation, when these earthquakes occur beneath the see, the water above the deformed area is displayed from its equilibrium position.
3. Waves are formed as the displaced water mass,...
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