In this chapter the researcher discussed about this study based on background of the study, problem statements of the study, purpose of the study, the significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, and definition of key terms. All of them were included on the chapter one as fulfilled of the study.
1. Background of The Study
Literature did not take itself to a single definition because the achieving of it over century has been as complex and natural as the life itself. Many literary experts had different opinion about literature. In this case, it was related with the time and social condition. Literature itself was correlated with human’s expression. Identical with life, it could be seen that literature was a true picture or replication of human’s life. The focus of literature was mankind’s life and the problem in it. It described that mankind’s life had many ways of expressing their felling, imagination, creation, and communication definitely the events of taking human life. Long in his book,” English literature,”(194:8) writes that literature is the expression of life in the word of troughs and beauty, it is the written record of man’s thoughts, emotions, aspirations, it is the story, and the only history, of the human soul.
Literary work so far was considered to be difficult to understand because it needed a sharp sense of appreciation to get willingness to find out what the author wanted to express to the readers. Therefore, the readers needed to look into not only outer surface of its components but also what was more important in the essence of it. It also implied things in the works of literature had to be dug out to find the valuable lesson hidden. The appreciation of literary work was always stand by special attitude such as how to interpret, characterized and evaluate.
Literature could not be separated from language because literature was language used at the best. Language was the medium of literature and the only purpose of language communicated something from the person to another. Language was also connection of literary work. As the connection of literary works signed to system which connected of a works of literature, an author, and the readers. The connection was complicated based on develop the three aspects. According Segers (1978:24 – 25) communication of literary works is complicated than communication of machine.
According Connoly (1955). Literature has three characteristics. Firstly, literature has power. It means that the use of language in a certain piece of work of literature may create powerful emotional impacts in readers mind. Secondly, literature is vivid. The written work of literature can make someone hear, feel, and see. Thirdly, the language of literature is clear. To clarify this, the author uses in passage to describe the character, the author clarifies his definition of person by allowing who he is, why he does it, now he does it what he would never do.
Literature was grouped on some categories by some experts related with time, form, and purpose of using literature. According Jakob Sumardo and Saini in their book “Apresiasi Kesusastraan” (1986:180 divided Literatures into two categories that Non Imaginative literature and Imaginative Literature). Imaginative literature is the writing contains fact explanation or real people life and history which aim at conveying knowledge to article, history book, dictionaries and text book. On the other hand, imaginative literature aims an entertaining as well as giving information. In this case the author tries to tell about his though, ideas and feeling.
A novel is a book length story in prose, whose author tries to create the sense that while we need, we experience actual life, (Kennedy, 1983:180). In reading a novel, the readers would gain messages, and it was not easy to interpret, it needed work hard to appreciate contents of novel forget...