In my school alone there is very serious measures for cheating. Any student who is found cheating by a teacher or proctor will have her paper taken away and must report immediately to the Principal. The teacher of the offender will then notify her parents. Three detentions are then issued to the individual. She automatically receives a zero on her examination. If the test that is being taken is a final the student will then fail the course for the year and be enrolled at once in summer school to receive the necessary credit needed to pass the course. If on Student Council, the student will forfeit her position, and a National Honors Society member will be subject to national regulations concerning cheating.
Another effect of cheating is that nothing can be gained by doing it. Of course, a better grade may be issued, but one can never learn anything by cheating or taking another individuals hard work.
By copying another student's test answers one may be passing with flying colors. But when it comes to big regents and finals where will the cheater be? Unknowledgeable and failing. Or even if one just copies homework, when the final examination arrives or just a quiz or a test on the material the class is studying, once again the cheater will fail.
Over all, the consequences of cheating vary greatly, from being dealt with by on a national level to just know deep down...