Categories of Nonverbal Communication

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CATEGORIES OF NON-VERVAL COMMUNICATION

Body movements, gestures and postures

Kinesics is the interpretation of body language such as facial expressions and gestures — or, more formally, non-verbal behavior related to movement, either of any part of the body or the body as a whole.

 Gesture is a form of non-verbal communication in which visible bodily actions communicate particular messages, either in place of speech or together and in parallel with words. Gestures include movement of the hands, face, or other parts of the body.

Gestures are communications like facial expressions, hand signals, eye gazing, and body postures.

Examples: include smiles, handshakes, waving, and raising certain fingers to say something.

• For instance, if you saw a friend at a noisy carnival, you might smile and wave at your friend. 

• You might also point at the Ferris wheel if you wanted to meet your friend there.

• You could do all of these things without saying a word.

• Another great example is in baseball when the catcher signals to the pitcher the kind of pitch to use for the batter that is up.

Postures can provide a significant amount of important information on nonverbal communication and emotional cues. Psychological studies have shown the effects of body posture on emotion

For posture in an anatomical context see Human positions

Its indicate attitudes, status, affective moods, approval, deception, warmth etc.

 Charles Darwin – he discovered the posture, when he studied emotion and movement in man and animals.

Facial expression is one or more motions or positions of the muscles in the skin . These movements convey the emotional state of the individual to observers. Facial expressions are a form of nonverbal communication. Facial expression can be intentional or unintentional.

List of idioms concerning FACIAL EXPRESSION: • to face someone down
• to talk until one is blue in the face
• to tell one to ones face
• to make a face at someone
• to keep a straight face
• to catch someone’s eye
• eyeball-to-eyeball / face to face
• to pull the wool over someone’s eyes
• to look at someone cross-eyed

Facial Management Techniques ([Malandro, Barker & Barker 1989])

A. Intensifying

Often societal pressures cause us to respond to the expectations of others, and at times such as these we usually exaggerate our facial behaviours to meet these expectations.

B. Deintensifying

In some situations we monitor normal reactions to respond more appropriately to others.

C. Neutralizing
We neutralize emotions at times when we are unsure of the outcomes.

D. Masking
We frequently replace felt emotions with emotions thought to be more appropriate.

Oculesics is often used interchangeably with eye contact.

Oculesics, a subcategory of kinesics, is the study of eye movement, eye behavior, gaze, and eye-related.

Dimensions of Oculesics
There are four aspects involved with oculesics:

Dimension 1: Eye Contact
There are three levels of eye contact: Direct eye contact

• Indirect eye contact
• Duration of eye contact

Dimension 2: Eye Movement
• Eye Movement occurs voluntarily or involuntarily. It can include changing eye direction, changing focus, or following objects with the eyes.

Dimension 3: Pupil Dilation
• Pupillary response is change in the size of the pupil, voluntarily or involuntarily. This change happens at the appearance of real or perceived new objects of focus, and even at the real or perceived indication of such appearances]

Dimension 4: Gaze Direction
• Gazing deals with communicating and feeling intense desire with the eye, voluntarily or involuntarily.

LIST OF EMOTIONS

Emotions w/ eye summary:

• Anger - eyes glaring and wide open
• Boredom - eyes not focused, or focused on something else • Desire - eyes wide,...
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