Just as the verbal expression of the IDEA is the TERM, and that of the JUDGMENT is the PROPOSITION, so the verbal expression of DEDUCTIVE REASONING is called ARGUMENTATION. ARGUMENTATION is a discourse which logically deduces one proposition from other propositions. ARGUMENTATION takes the form of a SYLLOGISM. A SYLLOGISM is defined as any argumentation in which, from two propositions called the PREMISES, we conclude a third proposition called the CONCLUSION, which is so related to the premises jointly, that if the premises are true, the conclusion must also be true. A SYLLOGISM derives its name from the kinds of propositions composing the syllogism. A SYLLOGISM is called CATEGORICAL if all the propositions composing the syllogism are CATEGORICAL PROPOSITIONS ( the predicate is affirmed or denied of the subject outright without any condition ). Example: All fathers are male parents. No true sportsman is a cheater. A SYLLOGISM is called HYPOTHETICAL if all the propositions composing the syllogism are HYPOTHETICAL PROPOSITIONS ( two propositions united into one, where one can only be true if the other is false or vice-versa ). Example: If it rains, then the ground is wet. You cannot be a saint and a sinner at the same time. A matter is either in motion or at rest.
ELEMENTS OF CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM
MATERIAL FORMAL PROXIMATE REMOTE ( 3 categorical propositions) ( 3 univocal terms S, M, P ) M P Major Every body is a substance. Premises S M Minor Every man is a body. CONSISTENCY S P Conclusion Therefore Every man is a substance.
I. MATERIAL ELEMENTS are the terms and propositions composing the syllogism. A. PROXIMATE ELEMENTS – are the three categorical propositions. 1. PREMISES – are the first two propositions from which a third proposition is concluded and which lead us to the new truth.
1.1 MAJOR PREMISE - the first proposition in which the major term (P) appears. 1.2 MINOR PPREMISE – the second proposition in which the minor term (S) appears. 2. CONCLUSION – the third proposition which is concluded from the premises and which expresses the new truth.
B. REMOTE ELEMENTS – are the three univocal terms 1. MAJOR TERM (P) – it always appears either as subject or predicate in the major premise, and always as predicate of the conclusion. 2. MINOR TERM (S) – it always appears either as subject or predicate in the minor premise, and always as the subject of the conclusion. 3. MIDDLE TERM – the term that serves as a medium through which the major term(P) and the minor term(S) are united in the affirmative...