Catalytic Cracking

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Table of Contents
1. Introduction1
2. LITERATURE REVIEW3
2.1 BIOFUELS3
2.2 Bio-Oil Production3
2.2.1 Bio-Oils production by Fast Pyrolysis4
2.2.2 Bio-Oils by Liquefaction of bio-mass6
2.3 Vegetable oil7
2.4 Drawback of bio oil9
2.4.1 Hydrodeoxygenation9
2.4.2 Catalytic cracking10
2.5 Mechanism of Catalytic Cracking11
2.6 Kinetic and modeling for catalytic cracking14
3. Characterization and Analysis techniques15
3.1 catalyst characterization methods15
3.1.1 XRD15
3.1.2 BET15
3.1.3 SEM15
3.2 bio mass and bio oil analysis methods15
3.2.1 TGA (Thermo-gravimetric analysis)15
3.2.2 FT-IR16
3.2.3 GC-MS analysis16
4. Experimental and modeling studies on wheat strew biomass17
4.1 Sample measurement17
4.2 Kinetic modeling18
4.3 Data calculation22
5. Result and Discussion24
5.1 Result24
5.2 Conclusion28
6. Catalyst Preparation29
6.1 Synthesizing MCM-41 and Impregnation of Palladium29
6.2 Synthesizing SBA-15 and Impregnation of Palladium29
6.3 Characterization of catalysts30
6.3.1 X-ray Diffraction Measurement30
6.3.2 Surface Area Measurement32
6.3.3 Characterization of catalyst by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM)36
7. Catalytic Cracking Experiments38
8. Result and discussion for catalytic cracking experiment41
8.1 Effect of temperature43
8.2 Effect of WHSV on product yield47
8.3 Characterization of cracking feed and product51
8.3.1FTIR spectra analysis51
8.3.2 1H NMR Analysis54
8.3.3 GC-MS analysis56
9. Kinetics and modeling for vegetable oil cracking59
9.1 Lump Model59
9.1.1 The Three Lump Model59
9.1.2 The Four Lump Model60
9.2 Result and discussion61
10 Conclusion67
Recommendations:68
List of Figures69
List of Table72
Reference73

1. Introduction

Nowadays fossil-based energy resources, such as petroleum, coal, and natural gas are responsible for about three quarters of the world’s primary energy consumption; each corresponds to 33, 24, and 19% respectively. Alternatives to fossil-based energy resources are nuclear power (5%), hydropower (6%), and biomass (13%), representing currently about one quarter of the world’s primary energy consumption. With decreasing crude-oil reserves, enhanced demand for fuels worldwide, increased climate concerns about the use of fossil-based energy carriers, and political commitment, the focus has recently turned towards improved utilization of renewable energy resources. Biomass is an abundant and carbon-neutral renewable energy resource for the production of bio-fuels and valuable chemicals. Energy production from biomass has the advantage of forming smaller amounts of greenhouse gases compared to the conversion of fossil fuels, as the carbon dioxide generated during the energy conversion is consumed during subsequent biomass regrowth (George et.al, 2006). Materials containing natural triacylglycerols (TAG) can be utilized, either directly or after being subjected to a suitable transformation process, as liquid transportation fuels. Development of transportation fossil fuels from renewable TAG containing sources at sustainable cost is therefore fully justified. Despite various restrictions concerning their use as foodstuffs, vegetable oils and animal fats continue to be an important commodity for liquid fuel production, particularly when it comes to inedible or waste articles. Second-generation fuels manufactured from lignocellulosic biomass that do not compete with food production have a more favorable carbon balance, lower energy demand and higher production potential. But these biofuels will be put into commercial application and able to affect the transportation sector within the timeframe of five to ten years. (Zhang et.al, 2006)

Biomass can be converted to useful simple monomeric chemicals by biological or thermo-chemical processes like gasification or pyrolytic, liquefaction. Pyrolysis is a form of...
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