Catalytic Converter

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A Seminar Report on

“CATALYTIC CONVERTER”

PREFACE
Catalytic converter is most effective device which converts harmful gases due to engine exhaust into eco-friendly gases. In this report, we have tried to bring into focus imports of reducing air pollution and why catalytic converter is necessary in automobile. We also tried to bring advance technology found out now a day for reducing air pollution. By best effort, we try to focus necessity of subject. We hope our report is one step ahead in this direction.

CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
7.1 INTRODUCTION:
As we know, air pollution is big challenge for the world. Air pollution is not national problem. An under developed country like India control of air pollution is very necessary. Air pollution due to industrial west, automobile & by nature. But among that air pollution due to automobile 70% of total air pollution. So now a day control of automobile pollution & its bad effect is very necessary. We have several ways for controlling automobile pollution, but most effective way is by using catalytic converter in the automobile. 7.2 CATALYTIC CONVERTER AS A POLLUTION CONTROLLER DEVICE:

The catalytic converter does a great job at reducing the pollution, but it can still be improved substantially. One of its biggest shortcomings is that it only works at a fairly high temperature. When you start your car cold, the catalytic converter does almost nothing to reduce the pollution in your exhaust. What is catalytic converter?

As the name suggests, it basically converts harmful gases into harmless gases, which are environment friendly, with the help of a catalyst. Engine exhausts having harmful gases like CO, NOx & HC which are converted into harmless gases like CO2, N2 & H2O respectively with the use of catalytic converter. 7.3 HISTORY:

In 1973, General Motors faced new air pollution regulations and needed a way to make its cars conform to the stricter standards. Robert C. Stempel , who at the time was a special assistant to the GM president, was assigned to oversee development of a technology capable of addressing the problem. Under Stempel’s guidance, GM built on existing research to produce the first catalytic converter for use in an automobile. Catalytic converters were first installed in vehicles made in 1975 in response to EPA regulations passed two years earlier tightening auto emissions and requiring a gradual decrease in the lead content of all gasoline. In a study released on Nov. 28, 1973, the EPA determined “that lead from automobile exhaust  was  posing  a  direct  threat  to  public  health.” Since the introduction of stringent emission regulations in the US in the 1970s,car  manufacturers  have  modified  their  exhaust  systems  to  incorporate  catalytic converters for the removal of Nox, CO and hydro carbons. All new cars registered throughout the European Union from 1 St January 1993 has to be fitted with catalytic converters. Platinum, palladium and rhodium are the main active components. There is now convincing evidence for the release of platinum group metals (PGMs) into the environment, possibly by abrasion of the auto catalyst. As a result, PGMs are found to have increased in the environment 7.4 POSITION OF CATALYTIC CONVERTER:

First of all catalytic converter was installed in under floor. This design needed further improvement. So additional starter catalyst is installed in closed coupled position. The catalytic converter usually looks like a muffler and is located underneath the vehicle in the proximity of the passenger seat in most cars although some cars have multiple converters. The purpose of a catalytic converter is to convert harmful hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides into harmless compounds. The catalysts inside the catalytic converter convert carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons into carbon dioxide and water, and nitrogen oxides back into nitrogen and oxygen....
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