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Public Policy and Public Participation Engaging Citizens and Community in the Development of Public Policy

Bruce L. Smith BLSmith Groupwork Inc.

Prepared for Population and Public Health Branch Atlantic Regional Office Health Canada

September 2003

Public Policy and Public Participation Engaging Citizens and Community in the Development of Public Policy

Bruce L. Smith BLSmith Groupwork Inc.

Prepared for Population and Public Health Branch Atlantic Regional Office Health Canada

September 2003

The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of Health Canada. Également disponible en français sous le titre Politiques publiques et participation publique : Engagement des citoyens et des collectivités dans l’élaboration des politiques publiques Contents may not be reproduced for commercial purposes, but any other reproduction, with acknowledgements, is encouraged. Please credit the source as follows: Public Policy and Public Participation: Engaging Citizens and Community in the Development of Public Policy. 2003. Produced by Bruce L. Smith for the Population and Public Health Branch, Atlantic Regional Office, Health Canada. For more information contact: Atlantic Regional Office Population and Public Health Branch Health Canada 1525 - 1505 Barrington Street Halifax NS B3J 3Y6 Tel: (902) 426-2700 Fax: (902) 426-9689 www.pph-atlantic.ca © Bruce L. Smith

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 HOW THIS WORKBOOK IS ORGANIZED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. CONTEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. PUBLIC POLICY DEVELOPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.1 POLICY PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2 DEFINITION OF PUBLIC POLICY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.3 EXERCISE: UNDERSTANDING POLICY, A PERSONAL APPROACH . . . . 9 3.4 ORIGINS OF PUBLIC POLICY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.5 TYPES OF PUBLIC POLICY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.6 KEY FACTORS AND CONSIDERATIONS IN PUBLIC POLICY DEVELOPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.7 THE POLICY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: AN OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3.8 IMPLEMENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.9 ALIGNMENT AND TRANSFER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.10 POLICY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: A HORIZONTAL POLICY EXERCISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.11 REVIEW QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.12 REFLECTIVE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4. CITIZENS, STAKEHOLDERS, AND THE POLICY COMMUNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.1 STAKEHOLDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.2 PUBLIC INTEREST VERSUS SPECIAL INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.3 STAKEHOLDER PROFILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.4 THE POLICY COMMUNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.5 POLICY COMMUNITY EXERCISE . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
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