1. A small family was traveling in its van and had a minor accident. The children in the back seats were wearing lap belts, but still sustained numerous bruises about the abdomen, and had some internal organ injuries. Why is this area more vulnerable to damage than others? Name specific organs that would be injured, as well as the abdominopelvic quadrant and region in which they are found. What injuries might you suspect in the damaged organs?
The area is vulnerable because all of the visceral organs in the peritoneal cavity are not protected by the rib cage. The rib cage only protects the pleural half, which contains the heart, lungs. The kidneys, stomach, liver and other peritoneal visceral organs are unprotected by apparatus. The reason for this is that unlike the heart and lungs, the digestive track, particularly the stomach, can expand and moves considerably a lot more than the heart and lungs. In order for peristalsis to occur, the muscles in these visceral organs contract and relax. If there were a rib cage around it, it would restrict movement of visceral organs. A&P 9th ed. Pg. 17
2. The client was admitted to the hospital with hypertension. The development of arteriosclerosis has increased peripheral resistance to blood flow, worsening his hypertension. This is an example of what type of feedback loop and why? Once you have identified the type of feedback loop present in this case study, please discuss how it differs with the opposite feedback loop.
This is a Positive feedback as referred as “cumulative causation”, a situation where some effect causes more of itself. A system undergoing positive feedback is unstable; it will spiral out of control as the effect amplifies itself. Negative feedback is a way for counteracting an effect and it control body temperature thermoregulation. A&P 9th ed. Pg. 12
3. Mr. Martinez read that cholesterol was bad for his health, so he eliminated all foods and food products containing this molecule. He later found that his cholesterol level dropped only 20%. Why did it not drop more? What organ would be the main controller of cholesterol and what specific molecules are involved in cholesterol and its control?
Cholesterol is produced by the liver, in addition to being ingested in foods. The liver and partially genetic is the main controller of the level of cholesterol. A&P 9th ed. Pg. 48
4. A 23-year-old male was riding his road bike in 100-degree heat, when he suddenly became nauseated and weak. He called 911 from his cell phone. When the ambulance came, the paramedics started intravenous therapy for severe dehydration. Explain the critical role of water to maintain homeostasis. What happens at the cellular level when there is too much or too little water in the body?
Well, water is a large part of homeostasis and is extremely important. So, here you are talking of dehydration which is the removal of water from his body. So, now we have a relative deficient amount of water in his system and his symptoms are getting worse and with the more loss continue to become more severe. So, now his body is signaling to say hey, something is wrong. With those signals from his body it begins to activate more responses to attempt to fix the problem and to compensate. Now, you could see him breathe faster and his heart beat faster because again, it is trying to fix the problem of the decreased plasma volume and blood pressure from the loss of water. In addition to this though, he is starting to get hotter and hotter because after a while he will not be able to sweat anymore to cool his body temperature. Therefor, he needed an iv started to increase his volume and to activate natural compensation to cool his body down again. A&P 9th ed. Pg.38, 57
5. A 64-year-old man is admitted to the hospital for non-healing pressure ulcers to his heels. He has been bedridden for 10 years because of a degenerative muscle...