The family a social institution is the most fundamental of all social groups and it is universal in its distribution from time immemorial. It is fundamental and persistent social group, a basic social institution at the very care of society. The values institutionalized in the family have long been regarded as important enough to warrant strong measures against any behavior that violated them. Not only has the family been defined as fundamental to the existence of society, but it has been viewed as a source of morality and decent content. It has also been defined as a primary force for controlling behavior and civilizing of human.
The family is a group defined by a sex relationship sufficiently precise and enduring to provide for the procreation and upbringing of children. It may include collateral or subsidiary relationship, but it is constituted by the living together of mates forming with their offspring a distinctive unity. This unit has certain common characteristics everywhere in human society. The following are the five significant characteristics seen essential to the very nature of the family that may be met in extremely a ways.
• A mating relationship
• A form of marriage or other institutional arrangement in accordance with which the mating relation is established and maintained.
• A system of nomenclature, involving also a mode of reckoning descent.
• Some economic provision shared by the members of the group but having especial reference to the economic needs associated with child bearing a child rearing and generally,
• A common habitation, home or household.
In Islam, contraception is mainly addressed in the context of marriage and family. As a social system, culture, and civilization, Islam considers the family the basic unit of society. The Quran, Islam’s holy book and the primary source of Islamic law or Shariah, views marriage as sacred and identifies the husband and wife as the principals of family formation. The Quran has a number of references to marriage, including the following:
It is He who created you from single soul andtherefrom did make his mate, that he might dwell in tranquility with her. (7 :189)
And God has made for you mates from yourselvesand made for you out of them, children and grandchildren.(16:72)
These verses suggest that tranquility is an important purpose of family life and is achieved through marriage. Also, while procreation is expected in marriage to maintain the human race,sexual relations in marriage need not always be for the purpose of having children. On this point, Islam departs from some other religions where procreation is the exclusive purpose of sexual relations. From the Islamic point of view, when procreation takes place, it should support and endorse tranquility rather than disrupt it.
Thus, contraception helps families achieve tranquility by having children when they want them and when they are prepared to have them. Because of the importance of family in Muslim societies, legal scholars from various Islamic schools of jurisprudence and from various locales have given considerable attention to contraception.
THE STRUCTURE OF MUSLIM FAMILY
There have been many definitions and descriptions of the family. For our purpose, we shall adopt the following simplified definition. The family is a human social group whose members are bound together by the bond of blood ties and/or marital relationship. The family bond entails mutual expectations of rights and obligations that are prescribed by religion, enforced by law, and observed by the group of members. Accordingly, the family members share certain mutual commitments. These pertain to identity and provision, inheritance and counsel, affection for the young and security for the aged, and maximization of effort to ensure continuity of the...