TOPIC: - THE CASE STUDY OF CRAY X-MP MULTIPROCESSOR
SUBJECT:-COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND ARCHITECTURE
SUBMITTED BY:-RAGHVENDRA SINGH SUBMITTED TO:-HARASHPREET SINGH
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take this opportunity to present my votes of thanks to all those guidepost who really acted as lightening pillars to enlighten my way throughout this term paper that has led to successful and satisfactory completion of this study. I am really grateful to my Computer Organization and Architecture teacher Er. HARASHPREET SINGH for providing me with an opportunity to undertake this project in this university and providing me with all the facilities. Lastly, I am thankful to all those, particularly the various friends , who have been instrumental in creating proper, healthy and conductive environment and including new and fresh innovative ideas for me during the project, their help, it would have been extremely difficult for me to prepare the project in a time bound framework.
4.1) CRAY X-MP MULTIPROCESSOR SYSTEM ORGANIZATION
4.3) CENTRAL MEMORY
4.4) MULTIPROCESSING AND MULTITASKING
4.5) INPUT- OUTPUT PROCESSING
4.6) SOLID STATE STORAGE DEVICE
4.7) PHISICAL CHARACTERISTIC
5) CRAY X-MP COMPUTER SYSTEMS
CRAY X-MP multiprocessor system requires 4 CPUs, a very large central memory, exceptionally fast speed computing speeds and input-output throughput which allows the users to employ multiprogramming, multiprocessing and multitasking techniques. It can process many different jobs simultaneously for the greater throughput. It can apply more two or more processor to a single job. Each X-MP CPU offers gather or scatter and compressed index vector instructions. These instructions allow for the vectorized processing of randomly organized data.The spectrum of applications for CRAY X-MP computer system ranges from the subatomic to the celestial. Whether calculating charge densities of atoms or the aerodynamics of spacecraft. The CRAY X-MP computer system offer new opportunities for research and discovery. The CRAY X-MP’s many configuration options give users the freedom to tailor systems to meet specific needs. In a business, university or government laboratory, in basic or applied research, CRAY X-MP’s systems can be adapted to meet the most varied and demanding computational requirements. 2) CRAY X-MP HISTORY
The first Cray-1 system was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1976 for $8.8 million. It boasted a world-record speed of 160 million floating-point operations per second (160 megaflops) and an 8 megabyte (1 million word) main memory. The Cray-1's architecture reflected its designer's penchant for bridging technical hurdles with revolutionary ideas. In order to increase the speed of this system, the Cray-1 had a unique "C" shape which enabled integrated circuits to be closer together. No wire in the system was more than four feet long. To handle the intense heat generated by the computer, Cray developed an innovative refrigeration system using Freon. CRAY-1 quickly became the standard for large scale scientific computers and the first commercially successful vector processor. For some time previously, the potential advantages of vector processing had been understood, but effective practical implementation had eluded computer architects. The CRAY-1 broke that barriers and totally vectorization techniques are used commonly by scientists and engineers in a wide variety of disciplines. In order to concentrate its efforts on design, Cray left the CEO in 1980 developed the first...