Balamiento, Janine Mara
Diones, Lyndhon A.
Ms. Rosemalyn T. Ronquillo
❖ Gather medical history findings which will help us to determine the cause of the client’s underlying medical condition. ❖ Illustrate and explore the Anatomy and Physiology of the affected body system. ❖ Explain the Pathophysiology of the disease to help determine its progression. ❖ Understand the importance of the different safety measures and to provide it during contact with the patient. ❖ Provide discharge planning and render health teachings to the client and significant others that will promote continuous self-care. [pic]
Is generally defined as inability of the heart to supply sufficient blood flow to meet the body's needs. It has various diagnostic criteria, and the term heart failure is often incorrectly used to describe other cardiac-related illnesses, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack) or cardiac arrest. CLASSIFICATION
There are many different ways to categorize heart failure, including: ❖ the side of the heart involved, (left heart failure versus right heart failure) ❖ whether the abnormality is due to contraction or relaxation of the heart (systolic dysfunction vs. diastolic dysfunction) ❖ whether the problem is primarily increased venous back pressure (behind) the heart, or failure to supply adequate arterial perfusion (in front of) the heart (backward vs. forward failure) ❖ whether the abnormality is due to low cardiac output with high systemic vascular resistance or high cardiac output with low vascular resistance (low-output heart failure vs. high-output heart failure) ❖ the degree of functional impairment conferred by the abnormality (as in the NYHA functional classification)
Functional classification ( New York Heart Association Functional Classification) The classes (I-IV) are: ❖ Class I: no limitation is experienced in any activities; there are no symptoms from ordinary activities. ❖ Class II: slight, mild limitation of activity; the patient is comfortable at rest or with mild exertion. ❖ Class III: marked limitation of any activity; the patient is comfortable only at rest. ❖ Class IV: any physical activity brings on discomfort and symptoms occur at rest. In its 2001 guidelines, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association working group introduced four stages of heart failure: ❖ Stage A: Patients at high risk for developing HF in the future but no functional or structural heart disorder; ❖ Stage B: a structural heart disorder but no symptoms at any stage; ❖ Stage C: previous or current symptoms of heart failure in the context of an underlying structural heart problem, but managed with medical treatment; ❖ Stage D: advanced disease requiring hospital-based support, a heart transplant or palliative care.
Heart failure symptoms are traditionally and somewhat arbitrarily divided into "left" and "right" sided, recognizing that the left and right ventricles of the heart supply different portions of the circulation. Additionally, the most common cause of right-sided heart failure is left-sided heart failure.
❖ Dyspnea (shortness of breath) on exertion (dyspnée d'effort) and in severe cases, dyspnea at rest
❖ Increasing breathlessness on lying flat, called orthopnea, occurs.
❖ Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea also known as "cardiac asthma", a sudden nighttime attack of severe breathlessness, usually several hours after going to sleep.
❖ Fatigue and exercise intolerance
❖ Tachypnea (increased rate of breathing) and increased work of breathing (non-specific signs of respiratory distress). ❖ Rales or crackles, heard initially in the lung bases, and when severe, throughout the lung fields suggest the development of pulmonary...