Case Study 6.2.3

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Unit 6
6.2.3
Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice. Sigmund Freud believed that each stage of a child's development beginning at birth is directly related to specific needs and demands, each based on a particular body part and all rooted in a sexual base. While simplification of his theories is necessary in order to give an overview, he held beliefs that are quite complex. In order to understand the basics of his developmental stages, it is important to note a few things: Freud's age ranges varied a bit over the course of his work, largely because he acknowledged that development can vary a bit from individual to individual. Additionally, experience of the stages may overlap at times. Finally, Freud believed that the way that parents handle their children during each of the stages has a profound and lasting impact on the overall development of the child's psyche. Piaget's stage theory describes the cognitive development of children. Cognitive development involves changes in cognitive process and abilities. In Piaget's view, early cognitive development involves processes based upon actions and later progresses into changes in mental operations. Schemas - A schema describes both the mental and physical actions involved in understanding and knowing. Schemas are categories of knowledge that help us to interpret and understand the world. In Piaget's view, a schema includes both a category of knowledge and the process of obtaining that knowledge. As experiences happen, this new information is used to modify, add to, or change previously existing schemas. For example, a child may have a schema about a type of animal, such as a dog. If the child's sole experience has been with small dogs, a child might believe that all dogs are small, furry, and have four legs. Suppose then that the child encounters a very large dog. The child will take in this new information, modifying the previously existing schema to...
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