Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the stomach and intestinal tract that primarily affects the small bowel. The major clinical manifestations are diarrhea of varying degrees and abdominal pain and cramping. Associated clinical manifestations are nauseas, vomiting, fever, anorexia, distention, tenesmus (straining on defecation) and borborygmi (hyperactive bowel sounds) (Black, Joyce M., Hawks Jane Hokanson., (2009). Medical-Surgical Nursing: A clinical Management for Positive Outcomes (8th ed.), pp. 679).
Gastroenteritis occurs throughout the world, often in epidemic outbreaks. Contaminated food and water are major causes of these diseases and cause thousands of deaths yearly. The incidence of infections caused by food-borne diseases is rising. These diseases cost society billions of dollars each year. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 33,000,000 cases of food-borne diseases occur annually in the United States, about 1 of every 10 Americans; about 9000 die. Salmonella and related strains cause an estimated 4 million cases of food-borne illnesses each year, and Campylobacter causes an estimated 2 million illnesses each year. Another bacterium, Escherichia coli 0157:H7 causes an estimated 30,000 infections and 250 deaths annually. In July 22, 2004, the Department of Health (DOH), Philippines declared an epidemic of a water/food-borne disease called acute gastroenteritis in 45 towns in Central Pangasinan. Acute gastroenteritis is a human enteric (intestinal) disease primarily caused by ingestion of spoiled or bacterial contaminated water or food. According to the DOH Secretary, Dr. Manuel Dayrit, a total of 2,778 cases of the said intestinal infection were recorded in just 45 days (from May 31 to July16, 2004). From the studies on the medical diagnoses of 81 cases, Dayrit concluded that infectious cholera disease was the main cause of the epidemic (www.doh.gov.ph). Locally, here in Tagum City, at Davao Regional Hospital pediatric department acute gastroenteritis was considered number 3 among the most common pediatric cases. It is common because some of the people are not aware regarding the proper handling and preparation of food. We chose to study this case because of its prevalence that is continuously arising each year. By studying this disease, we can help people to be educated by reading our data and alleviate the same situation in the future.
The objective of this study is to present all the accumulated information we gathered and studied about our patient’s case, a patient who had a final diagnoses of Acute Gastroenteritis with Dehydration and to use this information as a tool to extend quality nursing care to alleviate the same situation in the future. Specific Objectives:
•To trace the underlying pathophysiology of Acute Gastroenteritis with Dehydration and in the process will unravel facts on how this certain condition could hinder the normal functioning of the body. •To present a patient need assessment in different nursing theorist. • To discuss the physical assessment of the patient in different systems. •To show its daily summary activities in the hospital through nurse’s assessment with nursing intervention and medical management. •To show the importance of nurse’s therapeutic and interpersonal communication skills in establishing and developing a trusting patient-nurse relationship that will facilitate gathering of data and formulation of an effective plan of care. •To present the actual and ideal laboratory results, diagnostic examinations and its implication. •To present the personal data, family background, socio-economic background and the medical and health history of the patient. •To present and discuss thoroughly the anatomy and physiology related to the disease process. •To present and enumerate the drugs given to the patient; its uses, pharmacologic effects and clinical significance. •To present the actual and...