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Exam 3 Review Sheet
Equation for cellular respiration, be able to follow carbons from glucose to carbon dioxide Four stages of cellular respiration
Glycolysis, location, three phases, output. Breakdown of pyruvate, location, input and output Citric acid cycle, overall goal, main processes. Oxidative phosphorylation, electron transport chain, final acceptor Chemiosmosis, role of H ions, role of ATP synthase

Fermentation, steps in the process, alcoholic and lactate, where each occurs Be able to read glycolysis pathways from handout (glycolysis case study). Be able to diagnose based on blood tests Photosynthesis – overall equation, where it occurs

Properties of light, how pigments work, absorption spectrum, action spectrum, photosynthetic pigments Photosystems I and II, how they work, when they function
Light reactions: Cyclic and noncyclic, be able to follow the electrons Light-Independent reactions: Three overall steps. Fate of G3P C3, C4 and CAM plants, how they are similar and different
Functions of cell signals, how signals are relayed (5 ways). Three stages of cell signaling Receptor activation – ligand, types of cell surface receptors, intracellular receptors Protein kinases, phosphorylation

Receptor tyrosine kinases, G-protein coupled receptors, cAMP. Hormonal signaling, epinephrine, apoptosis Be able to read cell signaling pathways and diagnose based on blood test results (dog broken case study) Multicellularity: definition, advantages, larger proteomes, extra protein functions ECM: components, function

ECM proteins: types, functions, how they work
ECM polysaccharides: types, functions
Plant cell wall: primary, secondary, structure of each, function Cell junctions: types, cadherins, integrins
Four types of adhesion junctions
Plant cell junctions
Types of plant and animal tissues, similarities between plant and animal DNA Replication: four criteria, experiments – Griffeth, Avery Macleod, Hershey Chase Structure of DNA at all levels
Process...
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