Case Study

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TO protect people from injuries and to facilitates access during movements from one level to another in a building Stair should be placed at a central place in the building so as to give shortest access to all rooms. It should be well ventilated and airy.

Floors situated at different levels are connected for communication, by any of the following methods (1) Ladders. (2) Steps-stairs (3) Escalators

(4) Lifts.
(5) Ramps and chuts.
(6) Trolley-rope-ways

1) Ladders:
These are made of two side support, called up rights, either of wood, bamboo, mild steel, cast iron or pipes spaced with horizontal rugs. These can be portable or fixed as the need be. Wooden rungs held into twisted upright ropes are also very light ladders; these are mainly used in ships, boats and sea-trailers etc.Such ladders are also used for painting white washing in tall buildings 2) Steps:

Steps made in the form of a series of rising footing is termed as stair. A couple of steps built in series is known as a flight. Stair can be made into many shapes and designs out of any building-material 3) Escalators:

These are steps fixed on very slow moving belts. These are called moving stairs. These help in reducing the climbing time of stairs and are used at public places having vary high intensity of public movement. Like bus terminals, railway stations air ports etc 4) Lifts:

These are ventilated encased chambers which can be moved up and down in a shaft connecting different floors of a structure. These are high and low speed lifts. Lifts are electrically operated. Certain towers and sky-scrapers have lifts operating on outer faces of the structures. They are fixed with plexi glass and give the users a better view of the outside scenery around. 5) Ramps and chuts:

These are solid or inclined laid...
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