You are required to complete a pathophysiological template for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in relation to a case study and answer three questions.
To complete the template you must summarize the relevant information for each component. This summary may consist of a combination of sentences, flow diagrams and dot points where relevant. The information in the template must be accurately referenced using the APA referencing style. The questions are to be answered using correct sentence structure, paragraphs, grammar and spelling. Your answers must be accurately referenced using the APA referencing style. Details
Length: Pathophysiology template 400 words
Answers to questions 850 words
Date due: Friday 31st August, 2012 at 17.00 hours.
Mr Lewis White, a 67year old man, is brought to the emergency department by his son. he presents with worsening dyspnoea, cough and increasing sputum production over the past three days. On examination Mr White is severely dyspnoeic, centrally cyanosed and exhibits pursed-lip breathing. he is alert and oriented but very anxious. Mr White is using accessory muscles and on auscultation has decreased breath sounds, prolonged expiration and an expiratory wheeze. Observations on admission
Temperature: 38.2° C
Pulse: 96 beats/minute
Respiration rate: 28 breaths/minute
Oxygen saturation: 91%
Mr White, a retired officer, began smoking when he was 17 and smoked between 20 and 25 cigarettes a day until 10 years ago when he was diagnosed with pulmonary emphysema. Mr White lives with his wife and is experiencing more difficulty with his usual activities due to increasing breathlessness. The medications that he has been taking are tiotropium bromide (Spiriva®) inhaler once daily and salbutamol inhaler every 4-6 hours when required. Results of tests and investigations
Pulmonary function tests
FVC 1.8L (75% of predicted)...