Questions to be submitted as Case Study 1
1) Define Hyponatremia.- When sodium concentration in the blood is below 135 mEq/L, or abnormally low. It is induced by the consumption of large amounts of fluid that are sodium-free, such as water.
2) What is the etiology of hyponatremia?- Can occur in three ways: hypervolemic, euvolemic, and hypovolemic. Hypervolemic is when the body overall has too much water, lowering the serum sodium level, thus causing cells to swell. Euvolemic is when the body’s water level is too high, mostly due to a health condition, and hypovolemic, is when there is too little of water and sodium, mainly from exercising too hard without rehydrating.
3) Discuss the signs and symptoms of hyponatremia.-Just like the woman in the video, symptoms include nausea and vomiting, headache, confusion, dizziness, fatigue, and muscle weakness.
4) What physiologic cellular transport mechanisms cause the deadly effects of hyponatremia?- Osmosis, and ADH.
5) What types of physical activities or disease processes may produce hyponatremia?- Kidney failure, CHF, hypothyroidism, diarrhea, dehydration from excessive exercising and not rehydrating.
5) What treatment, if any would have saved the woman’s life?- IV administration of a sodium solution
6) How would you redesign the contest to prevent Hyponatremia and why?- Maybe limiting the water intake to 1 liter of water an hour or allowing other types of drinks that include sodium.
7) List and discuss Cannon’s Postulates; relate their relevance to the “Hold your Wee for a Wii” contest- Cannon’s Postulates are properties of homeostatic control systems in the body. 1. The nervous system has a role in preserving the “fitness” of the internal environment. The nervous system coordinates and integrates blood volume, blood osmolality, blood pressure, and body temperature, among other regulate variables. In regards to hyponatremia, the nervous system is increasing blood pressure, decreasing...
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