Epidemiologic research encompasses several types of study designs, including experimental studies and observational studies. Each type of epidemiologic study design simply represents a different way of gathering and interpreting information. The selection of one design over another depends on the particular research question, concerns about validity and efficiency, and practical and ethical considerations. Most researchers prefer case control study design over other study designs. Case-control is a type of epidemiological, clinical study design. It is typically used for retrospective studies. In a case-control study, people with a disease (often, a specific diagnosis, perhaps lung cancer) are matched with people who do not have the disease (the 'controls'). Further data are then collected on those individuals and the groups are compared to find out if other characteristics (perhaps a history of smoking) are also different between the two groups. According to Mosby's Medical Dictionary, (8th edition 2009) a case-control study is a nonexperimental research design using an epidemiologic approach in which previous cases of the condition are used in lieu of new information gathered from a randomized population. A group of patients with a particular disease or disorder, such as myocardial infarction, is compared with a control group of persons who have not had that medical problem. The two groups, matched for age, sex, and other personal data, are examined to determine which possible factor (e.g., cigarette smoking, coffee drinking) may account for the increased disease incidence in the case group. Case control studies are more preferred by the researchers or investigators due to a lot of reasons. Let’s talk about a few of the advantages of the case control study Rapid and easy to carry out Economic Comparatively few subjects are required No risk to subjects Risk factors can be identified Minimal or no ethical issues... [continues]
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