Carnival Cruise Lines: Exploiting a Sea Global Opportunity

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  • Topic: Syllogism, Categorical proposition, Traditional logic
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CHAPTER II

JUDGMENT and PROPOSITION

Form is a revelation of essence.
As the drop becomes the ocean, so the soul is deified, losing her name and work, but not her essence.
You must break the outside to let out the inside; to get at
Kernel means breaking the shell. Even so to find nature herself all her likeness have to be shattered.
(Anonymous)

Chapter Outline
1. Judgment Defined
a) Elements of Judgment
* two known ideas
* comparison of these two ideas
* mental pronouncement of
* identity/non-identity between two ideas
2. Proposition Defined
a) Parts of Proposition
* subject (S)
* predicate (P)
* copula (c)
3. Predicables
* species
* genus
* differentia
* property
* accident

Suggested Learning Activities 1. Spotting the difference between a mere sentence and a judgment/proposition. 2. Imaginary ‘anatomy’ of the body. 3. Mind game: What’s more essential: a) character or fame? b) beauty or brain? c) money or person? 4. ‘Measuring depth of knowledge’ game.|

The Proposition as Expression of Judgment

Judgment is the second mental process or operation that essentially figures in the act of reasoning or thinking. A judgment is an act of the mind pronouncing an agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Three things are required in the making of judgment, namely: 1. two known ideas, their 2. comparison, and 3. the act of the intellect pronouncing their identity or non-identity. Here is how a judgment exemplified. “A computer is a machine.” This sentence is one written example of a judgment. The ‘computer’ is the subject term while ‘machine’ is the predicate term. These two terms then represent the two ideas that the mind is comparing. The ‘is’ in the same sentence represents the act of pronouncement executed by the mind on the two ideas ‘computer’ and ‘machine’. In this intellectual pronouncement, the mind is engaged in processing whether or not the two ideas are in agreement or disagreement and/or identical or non-identical with each other. The example demonstrates that the mind specifically makes a pronouncement of agreement since the verb ‘is’ indicates that the mind recognizes the identity between the “computer’ and ‘machine’. Had the verb in the sentence been an “is not’, it would have implied that the mind makes a pronouncement of disagreement between the two ideas. Truth or, for that matter, falsity is then contained not in ‘idea’ but in judgment. In other words, what is expressed by a judgment is either a truth or a falsity. If the judgment conforms to the reality of the thing about which it is made, then it is true. If things are not as the judgment asserts them to be, then the judgment is false. It is not therefore difficult to figure out that a judgment is always expressed in a sentence, and a declarative sentence at that. An interrogative sentence, or an exclamatory, or a request or a command, cannot constitute a judgment per se because in these kinds of sentences the mind does not make a pronouncement of agreement or disagreement between two ideas or term. For instance, in this sentence, “Is Derrick Rose an NBA MVP?” no judgment is made by the mind because it (the mind) is not engaged in making a pronouncement of agreement or disagreement between the ideas ‘Derrick Rose’ and ‘MVP’. In asking question, the mind has not yet arrived to a definitive judgment whether one idea is affirmed or denied of another idea. Hence, no determination of truth or falsity is reached yet by the mind in an interrogative sentence. The same can also be said in exclamatory and imperative sentences. For examples: “Oh my goodness!” and “Please, hurry up.” In both sentences, the mind does not make any comparison between two ideas. Thus, no judgments per se have been made by the mind in these two sentences....
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