Carl Ransome Rogers, the most influential American psychologist of the 20th century was born on the 8th January 1902, in Oak Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. He was the fourth child out of the six children. His father Walter A. Rogers was a civil engineer and his mother Julia M. Cushing was a housewife and a devout Pentecostal Christian. He was such a brilliant child that he started school right away at second grade, as he was already able to read before attending kindergarten. Rogers was from a religious family and had a strict upbringing by his parents. He was described as rather isolated, independent, and self disciplined.
Rogers, went to the University of Wisconsin to major Agriculture, which he later switched to religion to study for the ministry. At that time he was one of the ten students who were selected to go to Beijing for a conference for six months. His thinking was so broadened due to his experiences there, that he had feelings of uncertainity on some of his basic religious views. After he graduated, he went against his parents wishes and married Helen Elliot and moved to New York City.
Carl Rogers is widely considered to be the one of the fathers to have founded psychotherapy research. He is recognised for the Person - Centered approach. Roger's theory of oneself is considered to be humaistic and phenomenological. His theory is based on 19 propositions. They are : 1. Every individual exists in a continually changing world of experience of which he is the centre.
2. The organism reacts to the field as it is experienced and perceived. This perceptual; field is, for the individual, reality.
3. The organism reacts as a whole to this phenomenal field.
4. The organism has one basic tendency and striving - to actualize, maintain, and enhance the experiencing organism.
5. Behaviour is basically the goal - directed attempt of the organism to satisfy its needs as experience, in the field as perceived.
6. Emotion accompanies and in general facilitates such goal directed behaviour, the kind of emotion being related to the socking versus the consummatory aspects of the behaviour, and the intensity of the emotion being related to the perceived significance of the behaviour for the maintenance and enhancement of the organism.
7. The best vantage point for understanding behaviour is from the internal frame of reference for the individual himself.
8. Behavior is basically the goal - directed attempt of the organism to satisfy its needs as experienced, in the field as perceived.
9. As a result of interaction with the environment, and particularly as a result of evaluational interaction with others, the structure of self is formed - an organized, fluid, but consistent conceptual pattern of perceptions of characteristics and relationships of the “I” or the “me” together with values attached to these concepts.
10. The values attach themselves to experiences, and the values which are a part of the self structure, in some instances are values experienced directly by the organism, and in some instances are values introjected or taken over from others, but perceived in distorted fashion, as if they had been experienced directly.
11. As experiences occur in the life of the individual, they are either (a) symbolised, perceived, and organized into...