Carl Jung

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Carl Gustav Jung: Analytic Psychological (1875-1961)

Carl Gustav Jung was born in Kesswil, Switzerland. His father, Johannes Paul Achilles Jung (1842-1896), was a pastor – a profession that had traditions in the family. He married Emilie Preiswerk (1848-1923) in 1874; Carl Gustav remained a single child for a long time before the birth of his sister, Gertrud.

Jung's study on schizophrenia, The Psychology of Dementia Praecox, led him into collaboration with Sigmund Freud; they first met in 1907 and talked about thirteen hours. "I found him extremely intelligent, shrewd, and altogether remarkable," Jung wrote on Freud. He opened a private practice and travelled with Freud in 1909 to the United States, lecturing and meeting amongst others the American philosopher and psychologist William James, whose thoughts deeply attracted Jung. Jung's disagreement with Freud started over the latter's emphasis on sexuality alone as the dominant factor in unconscious motivation. "Every form of addiction is bad," Jung later said, "no matter whether the narcotic be alcohol or morphine or idealism." Freud fainted twice in Jung's presence but the ties were broken with the publication of Jung's Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido (1912, Symbols of Transformation), full of mythological images and motifs, and with his acts as the president of the International Congress of Psycho-Analysis. In a letter to Freud he wrote: "If ever you should rid yourself entirely of your complexes and stop playing the father to your sons, and instead of aiming continually at their weak spots took a good look at your own for a change, then I will mend my ways and at one stroke uproot the vice of being in two minds about you." (Jung on December, 18, 1912). The end of his father-son relationship with Freud had a profoundly disturbing effect on Jung. He withdrew from the psychoanalytic movement and suffered a six-year-long breakdown during which he had fantasies of mighty floods sweeping over northern Europe – prophetic visions of World War I. His inner experiences Jung recorded in the "Red Book", illustrated with his own works in the art nouveau style. Freud viewed jung as the “Crown Prince” of the Psychoanalytic movement. At the first meeting of the new International psychoanalytic Association, Freud suggested that Jung be the elected president, for he believed that all would accept a young non-Jewish person.

However, he was met with stiff opposition from Viennese, most of whom were Jews and also because of Jung’s known anti Semitism. Nevertheless, Freud overcame these objections & Jung was elected

Ironically, soon after, the relationship between Freud and Jung began to weaken. Jung was not performing his presidential duties as well as Freud had expected.

Jung i) de-emphasized sex in his lectures and in his therapeutic analyses; ii) changed the concept of libido; iii) deplored freud’s causality; iv) shunned the traditional methods of empirical science.

By the end of 1912, relations between Jung & Freud were strained and they decided to discontinue correspondence.

By 1914, Jung had withdrawn completely from the movement, never resumed his friendship with Freud, and he soon founded a new school which he called ‘Analytic Psychology’

Basic Attitudes and Methodology

In the etiology schizophrenia , unlike Freud , Jung laid emphases upon the contemporary factors rather than historical factors.

Freud at that time agreed with Jung about this particular point, but he did not agree in general with Jung’s emphases on the present rather than on the past in the study of neurosis.

According to Jung- Not only present is important, but one must understand the future, potentialities of man in order to make sense of him.

The goals and intentions were as important as his history in directing man’s behaviour.

Deplored Freud’s study of causality exclusively in terms of past & found Freud’s theorizing too reductive and mechanistic....
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