Ah bad man we name – A.L.L.
Expected Learning Outcomes
1. Analysis of the Concepts of Development 2. Grasp of the interrelationships among the different approaches to development (human, economic, sustainable) 3. Grasp of the different indicators of development 4. Grasp of the different factors that promote and hinder development 5. Evaluation of how development has been influenced by political, social, cultural, environmental and technological factors
• Development has been understood to have 3 different interpretations: 1. Development as an enactment of human values: This concept essentially says for anything to develop, improvement must be based on some values which are being implemented. For example one may argue that for an economy to develop there must be an implementation of values which raise the standard of living Development as increasing differentiation or complexity: This concept essentially means that for anything to develop it must become more complex and differentiated where the component parts will interrelate with deeper linkages. Pretty self explanatory. Development as liberation or human freedom: This states that for people to be developed there must be an accompanied growth in autonomy, the options they can pursue and the self-efficacy (the significance of their actions). For example people see education and its ability to empower people to rise in their societies
Concepts of Development
Approaches to development
• There are three main approaches to development: 1. Economic Development 2. Human Development 3. Sustainable Development
• The specific goal of development in the decolonization era was economic development through economic growth • This referred to ‘an increase in the value of goods and services produced by a country within a specific time period’ • It was expected that the problems of poverty and backwardness would be solved once Caribbean countries experienced improvements in economic growth
Economic Growth Indicatorss
• There were various indicators measure this ‘development’ however they only measured accurately economic growth. • These included: 1. 2. 3. 4. Gross National Product (GNP): Value of goods and services from a country plus any foreign revenue. GNP per capita is = GNP ÷ population. Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The total market value of the goods and services of a country in a given year. GDP per capita = GDP ÷ population Population Growth Rate: calculated by considering birth and death rates and migration statistics therefore if one has a smaller population then GDP & GNP per Capita should rise Age dependency ratio: the ratio of people under 15 and over 65 (dependents) to the working age population (those between 15-64). The theory is if there are more working aged people to take care of dependents the government would spend less taking care of them.
Economic Development (Cont’d)
• The traditional emphasis was to implement measures which solely increased production while limiting population growth • This formed the basis of economic policies in the Caribbean from the 60’s to the 80’s and these ethnocentric approaches modelled in a uniform way not addressing the problems faced by citizens. • While production did increase to some extent the citizen has by large part not benefitted from this growth. • Economic development has evolved since then to focus not only on economic growth on welfare of the people and poverty reduction
Economic Development Indicators
• The economic and non economic indicators of development are collectively used to assess the level of development among countries. • Some Economic Indicators of Development include: • • • • • • Levels of Industrialization Employment Levels Economic structures (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Industries) The Levels of local and foreign debt Levels of foreign aid receipts National Resource Accounting...