IV. Race, Nationalism, Independence, Dependence and Regionalism.
The genesis of colonialism in the Caribbean and how it has taken root in the political, social and economic institutions.
Race and Class and how they both cohere to shape the social, political and economic landscape of the Caribbean.
Explain and understand how these forces work to determine the mosaic of Caribbean society, for example, how they resonate and reinforce rigid institutional hierarchies in education, politics and religion and they have been the major determinants of stratification and social identity in the region since colonization.
Can we divorce race and class from nationalism? Students are then asked to provide an answer to this.
What is plantation society and why is still so important to Caribbean society. How race, class and nationalism are bound up in the legacy of the plantation society created by the colonizers. For example features of Plantation Society are: ■ - keeping colonial peoples technologically deficient ■ maintaining colonial peoples as producers of primary raw materials ■ keeping colonial peoples bound to the mother country through the policy of trade exclusivism ■ limited horizontal linkages between the colonies except through the British government ■ The legacy of colonialism has shaped contemporary politics in the region. It has led to among other things the establishment of a colour hierarchy white over brown over black. And, it has been institutionalised by the political systems in the region. ■ The Comprador Bourgeoisie: In the English-speaking Caribbean, the landowning class owed loyalty ultimately to the metropolis, even though it might have disagreed on particular policies implemented in the colonies or on the correct system of government to be pursued.' More than economic interests, the plantocracy by the end of the nineteenth century was united in defence of its whiteness. ■ The nation states of the region are still struggling to establish sovereignty. This is partly because key roles in decision-making are still assigned to the metropolitan state, to international organizations or to elites allied to external markets, who view the masses of the region not as fellow citizens but as groups to be excluded from society and the polity. In these circumstances, nation-building is incomplete.
Examine the rise of the nationalist class with strong family connections and class cleavages and how they usurped the role of the working class and their access to power. As such even though the nationalists led us towards ‘independence’ political parties are still controlled by the middle class, who are often financed by private capital and only using as voting support the mass of the people who are still basically apathetic and alienated from government. One finds that much of government time is still taken up with politicking the community.
Examine the role of the nationalists in relation to independence as these contested groups are in conflict as they seek to exclude others from membership. Examine the contradictions within this group as they serve to reinforce dependent relations manifested through coordinated groupings such as the comprador bourgeoisie.
‘Independence’ did not usually result in radical changes in the lives of the majority. Hierarchies were reproduced, just deracialised in the Caribbean. In many cases, the change was mostly a matter of American born whites replacing the British born whites or West Indian intelligentsia, replacing the British colonials. Democratic constitutions were facades. Political and economic power still remained concentrated in the hands of a few linked by class, ethnicity and religion.
Examine whether independence is genuine or not. Look at the notion of neo-colonialist tendencies that exist for example: • The economies are still controlled from outside and therefore important decisions on the use of...