A. Introduction: The Women’s Past
B. Today’s Women
C. Factors Affecting Women’s Career
D. Career Development Issues on Women
E. Career Development on Women in Organization
F. Career Development on Women in United States
Introduction: The Women’s Past
Throughout history, the fate of women has been greatly shaped by domestic work. Women remained indoors, producing clothing, preparing and preserving food, and doing other, what would be called today, “domestic” tasks. Society has generally figured that women should be responsible for work in the home over anything else. Such a strongly embedded mindset has affected the activities in which women have been able to partake. Education and work outside of the home have been realms that many women have been unable to access in certain societies because social norms have dictated that women focus on domestic work. Therefore, women pervading realms outside of domestic work have actually been seen as extraordinary in many cases. In marriage, Chinese women were expected to take care of all household tasks to perfection, and often at the egging of the mother-in-law. Among those tasks included bearing and raising children, cooking, and cleaning. In addition, women had virtually no power in her marriage, and could be humiliated, abused, and even killed by her husband (p. 325). Such a position often caused Chinese wives extreme stress and worse. For instance, Ning Lao T’ai-T’ai wrote about her sister who married young and yet was expected to perform all of the housework. Her inexperience resulted in beatings by her husband and fury from her mother-in-law, and so her “sister went crazy” so that her family felt that a “demon… was troubling her”. It could be said that the demon was societal norms. The idea that women should only work at home has affected how women have been able to succeed in work outside of the home. For instance, Catherine Waugh, who graduated from a legitimate college of law, found difficulty in acquiring a job because of “traditional notions of the sanctity of women’s domestic role” and the idea that working was a “threat to femininity. Her friends and even her family discouraged her from entering the field of law, and “it took many days of rebuff to so quench my indomitable spirit”. Women’s Equality Day, the 19th Amendment (which guaranteed a woman’s right to vote), and the Equal Pay Act are all early steps that have led to shaping gender equality in today’s work force. In recognition of Women’s Equality Day, the recruiting experts at America’s Job Exchange take a look at the history of women and work. The 19th Amendment, ratified in 1920, legalized women’s suffrage, or right to vote. The Equal Pay Act put into law by President John F. Kennedy in 1963 helped ensure equal earnings for both men and women by illegalizing discrimination based on sex. When the Equal Pay Act was signed, women were earning about 59 cents to a man’s dollar. The gap has lessened, but, unfortunately, has not disappeared entirely. Women are still earning, on average, about 80 cents to the dollar, sometimes even less in the case of minorities. International Women's Day is celebrated in many countries around the world. It is a day when women are recognized for their achievements without regard to divisions, whether national, ethnic, linguistic, cultural, economic or political. It is an occasion for looking back on past struggles and accomplishments, and more importantly, for looking ahead to the untapped potential and opportunities that await future generations of women. In 1975, during International Women's Year, the United Nations began celebrating International Women's Day on 8 March. Two years later, in December 1977, the General Assembly adopted a resolution proclaiming a United Nations Day for Women's Rights and International Peace to be observed on any day of the year by Member States, in accordance with their historical and...