July 11, 2011
Care Theory Compare and Contrast Paper
Jean Watson’s Theory of human caring is based on transpersonal relationships and developing a caring environment that offers the development potential while allowing the person to choose the best course of action. Through interactions with others we learn how to recognize ourselves in others. Watson believes that through these interactions humanity is preserved. John Paley’s article A Slave Morality: Nietzchean themes in nursing ethics criticizes Watson’s theory that caring is central to nursing. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast John Paley’s article to Jean Watson’s Commentary on Shattle M (2004) Nurse-patient interaction: A review of the literature. A discussion of Watson’s background and care theory; John Paley’s background, and a brief discussion Friedich Nietzschen’s major philosophical beliefs. Jean Watson’s background
Jean Watson was born in West Virginia in 1940. She graduated from the University of Colorado where she earned her BSN, MS, and in 1973 her PhD. Dr. Watson is widely published and has received many awards and honors. She is a distinguished professor of nursing and endowed chair in Caring Health Science. She is also a fellow at the American Academy of nursing. Watson’s research specialized in loss and human caring. She developed the Theory of Transpersonal Caring, which is also referred to as The Caring Model in the late 1970’s. Her theory evolved over many years, but the principles have remained the same: to combine human caring with the knowledge of science. Jean Watson’s Care Theory
Watson’s theory had four major concepts. She believed human beings are to be valued, respected, understood, nurtured, and cared for. Watson added three elements to the WHO definition of “health”: a patient will experience a high level of functioning, absence of illness, and can perform activities of daily living at an acceptable level. She stated that a caring attitude transmits culturally with use of its environment. Last, Watson believed that nursing focuses on preventative health, caring for the sick, and restoration of health. She believed that in the practice of caring in nursing, holistic care is fundamental (Current Nursing, 2011) John Paley’s background
John Paley is a Senior lecture at the University of Stirling, School of Nursing, Midwifery, and Health in Stirling, Scotland. He teaches research methods, philosophy and ethics, clinical cognition, organization and management. He is one of the most influential theorists in modern nursing (University of Stirling, n.d.). Paley’s research includes nursing's appropriation of phenomenology, The philosophy of qualitative research, professional ethics, nursing applications of the philosophy of mind, clinical cognition, and dynamic systems in health care (University of Stirling, n.d.). His 2002 article ‘Caring as a slave morality: Nietzschean themes in nursing ethics’, criticizes Jean Watson notion of caring as central idea in nursing practice. Friedich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche’s (1844- 1900) ideas on truth, religion, morality, history, nihilism, power, and meaning of existence have had an enormous influence on modern Western philosophy (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2009). His works remain highly controversial and there is widespread disagreement about their interpretation and significance. Some of the major concepts of his ideas in a very simplified way include Nihilism and the revaluation of values. Nihilism argues that life does not have a purpose or intrinsic value. Nietzche criticizes Christianity and the establishment of moral systems based on a dichotomy of good and evil. He suggests a reevaluation of the Judeo-Christian values and the idea of God is dead means that the idea of God can no longer provide values (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2009). According to Nietzsche’s Genealogy, the common...