Cardiovascular Diseases

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Cardiovascular disease

Introduction

Heart disease is No. 1 killer disease worldwide. It causes 12 million deaths annually. Thanks to the rising health awareness and government programmes this number significantly reduce during last 30 years.

Coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular diseases are diseases of the heart (cardiac muscle??) or blood vessels (vasculature). Cardiovascular disease (CVD) means all the diseases of the heart and circulation (blood vessels disease) including coronary heart disease (angina and heart attack) and stroke, as well as coronary and periphery blood vessels disease (problems with circulation). Diseases from this group are the biggest killer in Europe and USA, but developing and non-develop countries too. The final and most tragic consequence of different types of heart disease is heart attack with tragic consequences.

Heart diseases are caused by atherosclerosis, a disease of arterial blood vessels resulted from atheroma i.e. plaques accumulated (forming; sticking) on artery walls which makes the blood vessels nonelastic and narrowed and leads to decreased blood flow. For the atherosclerosis doctors very often use alternative name chronic cardiovascular disease. The opposite group acute heart disease made group of diseases which are dangerous for patients lives.

Acute heart diseases include conditions or illnesses which usually have a rapid onset of symptoms and may resolve within days with or without treatment. A condition or illness that is sudden or severe. On the other hand a condition or illness that arises slowly over days or weeks and may or may not resolve with treatment made a group of chronic heart disease. Both of them are caused by atheroma and the most known are next:

a) Acute heart disease

Heart attack is caused by lack of O2 in heart muscle cells. Very often it is caused by rupture of “hard plaques” patches which result in blood clots and partially or completely block blood flow and cause a heart attack.

When a fiber cap becomes thin, these “hard plaques” can suddenly rupture, spilling their contents, resulting in blood clots that partially or completely block blood flow and cause a heart attack http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/nitin-35423-heart-diseases-science-technology-ppt-powerpoint/

Cholesterol glossary. http://www.mybwmc.org/library/28/000225

Stroke

Stroke is death of brain cells caused by obstructed blood flow to parts of the brain. Since the level of LDL cholesterol is main cause of narrowed of blood vessels, it is necessary control it. If not treated properly, high LDL cholesterol can cause a stroke.

Cholesterol glossary. http://www.mybwmc.org/library/28/000225

b) Coronary heart disease Heart disease (coronary heart disease),

When the plaque build up in th conorary arteries heart does not get sufficient blood, the condition is called coronary artery disease or coronary heart disease.

Atherosclerosis is a disease of arterial blood vessels in which plaques form on artery walls. This is a consequence of different substances circulating in the bloodstream (inflammatory cells, proteins, cholesterol and calcium) sticking inside the vessel walls. Plaque patches influence on narrowing blood flow in the artery.

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Peripheral artery disease (reduced blood flow in the limbs, usually the legs

Coronary plaque

Coronary plaque is a term which use in practice as a synonym for atheroma or atherosclerosis. Patches of atheroma are formed from substances that circulate in the bloodstream. They consist of lipid, or fat, cores covered by collagen fiber caps which are sticking to the inside of the vessel walls.

Over time plaque or patch of atheroma increases making an artery narrower and the blood flow through the artery is reducing.

We can see the changes in...
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