Cardiology: Hypertension and Experimental Method

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Cardiology
Cardiovascular disease became an important issue for modern medicine at the beginning of the Twentieth century. By the late 80's coronary disease became the number one source of deaths in the United States. Every two people died from heart attacks, while three others suffered from them. Many people and their studies throughout history, dating all the way back to the 16th century up until today, have gathered the information needed to become more aware of this disease. Refined diagnostic techniques led physicians to a greater understanding of how to monitor the heart. New literatures on difficult, troublesome abnormalities help researchers detect early signs of heart failure. With not only concerns of heart attacks worrying doctors and patients alike, the new trend of high blood pressure or hypertension became even more than a treat. The hardening and thickening of heart's arteries meant that more work was expected out of the heart. This over exhilaration caused skipping, lack of breath, pains that were preamps for fatal heart attacks. Arteriosclerosis was caused and by ‘a build up of fatty deposits in arterial wall', and made worse by stress, smoking, and excessive drinking. Due to multiple complications of the heart, cardiology stepped up its efforts in the mid-twentieth century. Computerized axial tomography(CAT-scan) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-scanning) provided new methods of understanding pathology and physiology of individual heart problems. Surgical procedures that performed effective bypasses and open-heart surgeries before; are now being replaced by even more up to date advances, making recovery minimal. New drugs that dissolve blood clots and reduce cholesterol have reduced drastically the death rate in heart attacks victims. Besides the pharmacological and surgical approaches to curing heart problems, developments with the management of abnormal heart rhythms have improved. Pace makers along with other electrodes are used to help regulate heart rates. In the United State between 1970-1990 coronary heart disease drop by half, leading to 300,000 less deaths a year. This amazingly data can be credited to the health kick that has caught on so rapidly. Instead of worrying about new and improved treatments, there has been a general concern with prevention. Understanding the risk factors has help greatly. Knowing the dangers of cholesterol and the importance of a good diet and a lot of exercise has not only prevented heart problems for the United States, but has set a higher standard of health for the rest of the world.

Teaching/practice of Med.
In the beginning of the 19th century basic primary health care began to be available to everyone in need. It was nothing fancy. Sick patients were treated to the best of the doctors' ability. They not only saw physically ill patients, but people with a variety of ‘psychological, social, conventional, and ritualistic problems.' Doctors found themselves trying to solve theses issues only to please their patients. Looking pass the social aspect of seeing a doctor, physicians were challenged to cure deadly diseases that were not going away through the tradition conservative (bed-rest, tonics, care and hope) and not so conservative (calomel, blood letting, chloral mixtures and morphia) methods of the time. With the 20th century on the brink, doctors decided to use more science in their treatments. Diagnostic equipment, chemical tests, physical examinations and break through medication were used as reference instead of the good ol' fashion style of doing things. ‘New diagnostic jargon and fancy prescriptions' set the evolving standard that physicians were quite professional. This new form of general practice that was slowly changing into ‘professionalism' was founded on new diagnostic principles. This new way of doing things was created in medical schools across the United States. The medical universities taught the link...
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