11 February , 2012
General Purpose: To inform
Specific Purpose: To inform the audience about what is happening in the body during cardiac arrest and what to do if they witness a cardiac event. Central Idea: Bystander CPR and use of an AED, or automated external defibrillator, is the greatest predictor of survival for a person in cardiac arrest. The majority of the general public feel unprepared or unqualified to assist a person in cardiac arrest. Hands only CPR is a simple course of action that people of any age or ability can learn. As the majority of cardiac arrests occur at home, the life being saved will most likely be a family member. Introduction:
Attention Getter: There you are walking in the mall, sitting at a table having a nice lunch, playing charades when all of a sudden the person in next to you grabs their chest and sinks to the floor. Do you know what to do? Will you freeze up? Will you panic? Or will you know what to do and do it? That person’s life is now in your hands. What you do from this point on will determine whether they have a chance at living or if they will die. Introduce Topic: Today, I’m going to talk to you about sudden cardiac arrest and what to do if someone collapses in front of you. Statement of Credibility/Relevance: Cardiac arrest is defined by dictionary.com as the “failure of the pumping action of the heart, resulting in loss of consciousness and absence of pulse and breathing.” According to the Center for Disease Control Cardiac Arrest Registry updated in July 2011, approximately 300,000 people experience an out of hospital cardiac arrest each year. Only 8% survive to be discharged from the hospital (“Cardiac Arrest Registry”). According to the CPR Facts and Stats released by American Heart Association or AHA in June of 2011, “80% of these events will occur at home” and alarmingly, “70% of Americans feel helpless to act because they don’t know how, or their training has significantly lapsed.” Thesis: Cardiac Arrest is a common event that occurs most often in a place of residence. The majority of Americans feel unqualified or “helpless” to act in this situation (“CPR and Sudden Cardiac”). Preview: First I’m going to teach you about the physiology of cardiac arrest. Second I’m going to show you how to follow the “Chain of Survival” to best help someone in need. Lastly I’m going to teach you about CPR and how you can save a life. Transition: Let’s look at the heart and what causes a cardiac arrest. Body:
I. Physiology of the Heart and Cardiac Arrest
a. The heart is composed of cardiac muscle. According to the Paramedic Care Medical Emergencies text book, cardiac muscle is unique as it is the only muscle capable of conducting and producing electrical impulses (84-5). These electrical impulses cause the muscular contraction that rushes blood to the vital organs. The Physiology of Sport and Exercise textbook calculates, with an average rate of 75 B.P.M., the heart pumps over 1700 gallons of blood per day (227-8). At maximum output, the heart of an elite athlete can pump over 5 gallons per minute (Wilmore, 227-8). b. The sinus node is the electronic pacemaker of the heart, it’s the conductor that keeps the heart pumping and the blood flowing. However, sometimes the conductor gets kicked off his podium and cardiac arrest occurs. This could be caused by a heart attack, stroke, drug overdose, trauma or electrolyte imbalances. The orchestra loses all sense of direction as one of four cardiac rhythms occurs. c. V-Tach., or ventricular tachycardia, is when the heart beats so fast it can’t pump blood effectively. In V-Fib., or ventricular fibrillation, the heart is quivering and everybody in the orchestra is on a different beat. In P.E.A., or pulseless electrical activity, the heart wants to pump but it can’t. The musicians are trying to play, but no sound is produced. Lastly, in asystole, also...