Background of the Study
The library considering its vital and essential contribution in academic excellence must be given high regard by the educational sector. Indeed, a more functional and well organized library services through an automated system is seen necessary for advancement. A card catalog is a physical listing of all of the contents of a library, organized with a single card for each item in the library. The card catalog was a familiar navigational hazard and blessing in all libraries well through the late 20th century, when physical card catalogs began to be displaced by computerized versions. Some libraries retain their card catalogs, often as sentimental mementos, and a few actively maintain their card catalogs: this is most common in small, remote libraries. The need to catalog books in some way has been present since books were invented. A good catalog enables people to know which books a library has, and where to find them, and many catalogs contain additional information which could be assistance to scholars. Early library catalogs were kept on scrolls or in ledgers, and they were often printed and distributed so that distant scholars could know which books a library had. The concept of the card catalog was introduced in the 1800s, and it was a great help to scholars. Card catalogs can be configured in a number of ways, and their organization makes it easy to add or remove books, and to find books. In a card every time a new book enters a library, a card is created for it, with information like the title, author's name, subject, and location of the book.(Gross, 2001) In retrospect, libraries' individual and collective decisions to initiate their automation efforts with cataloging operations, thereby creating a foundation for online access to information, appear brilliantly strategic. But in reality, many of the significant benefits of these early efforts were unintended and unforeseen. The information explosion and postwar influx of pupils to higher education in the 1960s led to increased library acquisition budgets and rising collection growth rates. These changes heightened concern about cataloging costs and performance. The traditional, almost handicraft means of cataloging production could not keep pace with the new workloads; manual processes of card production and filing delayed providing users with information about new acquisitions; and redundant cataloging among libraries maintained high costs within libraries as a system.
Libraries are being transformed not only by external pressures and opportunities but also by internal developments and demands, specifically the creation of digital information and services. During the 1990s, libraries began actively creating new forms of online publications, facilitating scholarly communication, establishing digital library standards, and assuming an increasingly active role in instructional technology. Although our understanding of the transformational potential of the new technologies may not be comprehensive, we know enough to discern that certain kinds of investments may be more likely than others to ensure that library IT meets academic needs. 1
Systemic improvements to cost and performance could be achieved only by reducing these redundant efforts among libraries. Under the leadership of the Library of Congress, the library community established standards for machine-readable cataloging (MARC) so that records could be shared over campus networks. The MARC standard enabled the creation of national bibliographic networks supporting online=e shared cataloging and interlibrary lending. By the late 1970s, virtually all research libraries were using one of the national bibliographic utilities the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) or the Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN) for cataloging and interlibrary borrowing. During the 1980s, libraries automated other local processing operations and...