INTRODUCTION TO SUSTAINABILITY
KHANH NGUYEN 1001974
THE NATURAL CARBON CYCLE
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the biogeochemical cycles which the fourth most common elements on Earth. It is also a basis of all life and continually cycled and globally existed. Carbon dioxide is obtained from various sources, including emissions from volcanoes or industries and combustion products of organic compounds and the respiratory activity of living organisms. Carbon dioxide not only going into the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), solid waste, trees and wood products, but also as a result of other chemical reactions (e.g., manufacture of cement).
Other hand, it is also a production of microorganisms from fermentation and cellular respiration. The plants absorb carbon dioxide during photosynthesis, and use both carbon and oxygen to create carbohydrates. In addition, plants also release oxygen back to the atmosphere; the oxygen will be used by heterotrophic organisms in the respiratory process, forming a cycle (clearly understand through the picture above). It is present in the Earth's atmosphere with low concentrations and act as greenhouse gases. It is a major component of the carbon cycle. Therefore, the carbon cycle has contributed to major climatic changes.
Carbon dioxide + water + sunlight -> carbohydrate + oxygen CO2 + H2O + sunlight -> CH2O + O2
Oxygen + carbohydrate -> energy + water + carbohydrate
O2 + CH2O -> energy + H2O + CO2
Carbon dioxide is taken from the atmosphere by dissolving in water to forming carbonic acid CO2 + H2O -> H2CO3 (carbonic acid)
The chart above clearly explains how the carbon dioxide creates and the changes in the carbon cycle.
THE ENHANCE OF CARBON CYCLE
The Kyoto Protocol was released after people realize and can prove that the Earth is 0.7O C warmer than it was 150 years ago and before the Industrial Revolution. The Kyoto Protocol was arranged in 1997 and was acted on 16 Feb, 2005. It was taking by 36 industrial countries which established the goal to control and reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide and another greenhouse gases. It is prove that global warming is already under realize and the goal to reduce or control emissions of co2 and others greenhouse gases. The aims is 5% carbon dioxide will be decrease from 2008 to 2012 compare with 1990, however, one of the reasons why the amount of carbon is under-controlled after America and Australia are later quit. Human activities are responsible for increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The main sources of human emission are the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas Vehicle, overuse electricity is another way to enhance carbon dioxide Humans produce between 3 and 6% of all carbon dioxide emissions. Natural carbon sources produce much larger quantities than mankind, but this is offset by the vast natural carbon sinks that remove CO2 from the air. The current imbalance is due to human activity. Humans produce 3 to 6% of all carbon dioxide emissions. Number production of natural carbon is greater than mankind, but this was offset by the large natural carbon sinks that remove CO2 from the air. Current imbalance is caused by human activity. Human emissions are not the only factor, but it is the most significant reason contributed to increasing CO2. For instance, human emitted more than 130 times
THE NATURAL GREENHOUSE EFFECT
Greenhouse gases are a natural part and existed in the atmosphere before human being came to the scene. The most common gases are the gases nitrogen and oxygen, they are transparent to heat radiation. The nitrogen and oxygen are not absorbed nor emit thermal radiation. In addition, the smaller quantities present in the air such as carbon dioxide, the water vapour and minor gases (methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons –...