Carbon and Its Compounds

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Carbon and Its Compounds
Carbon: Introduction
Atomic Number: 6
Electronic Configuration: 2, 4
Valence electrons: 4
Property: Non-metal
Abundance: Carbon is the 4th most abundant substance in universe and 15th most abundant substance in the earth’s crust. Compounds having carbon atoms among the components are known as carbon compounds. Previously, carbon compounds could only be obtained from a living source; hence they are also known as organic compounds. Bonding In Carbon: The Covalent Bond

Bond formed by sharing of electrons is called covalent bond. Two of more atoms share electrons to make their configuration stable. In this type of bond, all the atoms have similar rights over shared electrons. Compounds which are formed because of covalent bond are called COVALNET COMPOUNDS. Covalent bonds are of three types: Single, double and triple covalent bond. Single Covalent Bond: Single covalent bond is formed because of sharing of two electrons, one from each of Formation of hydrogen molecule (H2) Formation of Hydrogen.

Atomic Number of H = 1

Electronic configuration of H = 1

Valence electron of H = 1

Hydrogen forms duet, to obtain stable configuration. This configuration is similar to helium (a noble gas).

Since, hydrogen has one electron in its valence shell, so it requires one more electron to form a duet. So, in the formation of hydrogen molecule; one electron from each of the hydrogen atoms is shared.

Formation of hydrogen chloride (HCl):

Valence electron of hydrogen = 1

Atomic number of chlorine = 17

Electronic configuration of chlorine: 2, 8, 7

Electrons in outermost orbit = 7

Valence electron = 7
the two atoms.
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