Car Accidents

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PAUL L. ZADOR,PH.D., SHEILA A. KRAWCHUK AND ROBERT B. VOAS.M (2000) . Alcohol- Related Relative Risk of Drivers Fatalities and Driver Involvement in Fatal Crashes in Relation to Driver Age and Gender. JORNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL.387-395

Problems that motivated the researchers to do this study:
* The number of deadly car accidents in the U.S. caused by drivers under the influence of alcohol has increased in the past decades making alcohol one of the main factors of fatal crashes. * The legal level of BAC (blood alcohol concentration) in the U.S. has changed. 31 states defined level of 0.10% BAC as a crime, while 17 others defined the level of 0.08% BAC as a crime. Purposes:

* To re-examine and refine estimates for alcohol-related relative risk of driver's involvement in fatal crushes by age, gender as a function of BAC. *To show that even as level as low as 0.08% BAC can affect a driver's skills and increase the relative risk of a deadly car accident. Methods:

Two methods used:
1) Data sources- using data, information and surveys that have been published in the past years. Examples: NHTSA- National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
The National Roadside Survey of Drivers (96 NRS).
FARS-Fatality Analysis Reporting System.
Ministry Of Transportation.

2) Statistical Method:
A. Mathematical and statistical calculations were used to estimate and measure the relative risk. B. Researchers divided the "normal driver"- healthy (not disabled) men &women between the ages of 16-34, 35+ into six groups/types of drivers: * Drivers fatally injured in single vehicle crash.

* Drivers involved in fatal single vehicle crashes.
* Drivers fatally injured in two- vehicle crashes.
* Drivers involved in fatal two- vehicle crashes.
* Drivers fatally injured in motor-vehicle crashes.
* Drivers involved in fatal motor-vehicle crashes.

*all the six groups were classified by gender, age and BAC...
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