CAPM is a model which enables investors to determine the expected return from a risky security. It observes the relationship between the risk of an asset (Mobil Oil) and its return. The model uses Beta as the main measure of risk. This model works under the following situations: • In a perfectively competitive market where they are many price-takers’ investors, who have a small market share each. • Investors behaviour is myopic

• Also investments included in the model are publicly traded financial assets such as bonds and stocks. Investors borrow or lend at a risk free rate. Investors have no transactions cost and do not pay taxes on returns • All investors in the market are rational mean variance optimisers. • Finally, investors have homogenous expectations which imply that they analyse securities in the same way, share the same economic view of the world, therefore they share identical estimates of probability distributions of cash flows.

Beta shows the relationship between the expected return of a stock and the return of the financial market as a whole. In relation to this project, it measures the elasticity of Mobil’s Oil returns in relation to the market index. It is calculated as:

Beta (Mobil) = Covariance (Return of Mobil oil, Return of Market) / Variance (Return of Market).

Using Linear least squares, the estimated beta is the same as that calculated using Regression analysis on Excel. Estimated Beta is 0.714 which implies that the total return of Mobil Oil’s stock is likely to move up and down 71.4% of the time when the market changes. As 0.714 < 1, Mobil Oil’s stock is less volatile than the overall Market Portfolio.

Due to CAPM being a simplified model, Beta has to be tested to see if this Beta value for Mobil Oil (0.714) is accurate. By this, I tested if there is a relationship between Mobil’s Oil Return and the Market. H0: hypothesised slope=0. An alternative hypothesis is that there is a relationship between Mobil...

...CAPMCAPM provides a framework for measuring the systematic risk of an individual security and relate it to the systematic risk of a well-diversified portfolio. The risk of individual securities is measured by β (beta). Thus, the equation for security market line (SML) is:
E(Rj) = Rf + [E(Rm) – Rf] βj
(Equation 1)
Where E(Rj) is the expected return on security j, Rf the risk-free rate of interest, Rm the expected return on the market portfolio and βj the...

...
The Capital Asset Pricing Model commonly known as CAPM defines the relationship between risk and the return for individual securities. CAPM was first published by William Sharpe in 1964. CAPM extended “Harry Markowitz’s portfolio theory” to include the notions of specific and systematic risk. CAPM is a very useful tool that has enabled financial analysts or the independent investors to evaluate the risk of a specific...

...pricing model (CAPM)
Using the Capital Asset Pricing Model, we need to keep three things in mind. 1 there is a basic reward for waiting, the risk free rate. 2 the greater the risk, the greater the expected reward. 3 there is a consisted trade off between risk and reward.
In finance, It is used to determine a theoretically appropriate required rate of return of an asset, if that asset is to be added to an already well-diversified portfolio, given...

...The CAPM and the Index Model report
Introduction
In this report, our group considers four large U.S. corporations, which are Apple, Dell, Nike and Home depot. By using the CAPM and the index model to analyze these four stocks and diversification, we collect data source over the period January 2008 to December 2012 from yahoo finance and process it to show a brief summary below:
Over the period January...

...Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is one of the economic models used to determine the market price for risk and the appropriate measure of risk for a single asset. The CAPM shows that the equilibrium rates of return on all risky assets are function of their covariance with the market portfolio. This theory helps us understand why expected returns change through time. Furthermore, this model is developed in a hypothetical...

...Is CAPM Beta Dead or Alive? Depends on How you Measure It
Jiri Novak*
* Uppsala University, Sweden E-mail: jiri.novak@fek.uu.se October 2007 Abstract: The CAPM beta is arguably the most common risk factor used in estimating expected stock returns. Despite of its popularity several past studies documented weak (if any) association between CAPM beta and realized stock returns, which led several researchers to proclaim beta “dead”. This paper shows...

...estimated to testify that the CAPM works in practice.
The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) provides us with an insight into the relationship between the risk of an asset and its expected return. This relationship serves two significant functions. First, it provides a benchmark rate of return for evaluating possible investments. Second, the model helps us to make an educated guess as to the expected return on asset that have not yet...

...ECON 405: Quantitative Finance
CAPM and APT
In this document, I use the package ”gmm”. You can get it the usual way through R or though the development website RForge for a more recent version. For the latter, you can install it by typing the following in R: > install.packages("gmm", repos="http://R-Forge.R-project.org") The data I use come with the package and can be extracted as follows: > > > > library(gmm) data(Finance) R > > > >
Rm F) 0.70956 0.70956 0.70956...

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