Capital Market in India

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Valuation of Stocks and Functioning of Indian Stock Market
The work in this area can be classified into three broad strands: a) those dealing with functioning of securities markets and financial institutions operating in these markets, b) those pertaining to the investment decision making process of individuals, and c) empirical work on Indian stock markets. One of the early works on functioning of stock markets and financial institutions was by Simha, Hemalata and Balakrishnan (1979). Bhole (1982) wrote a comprehensive book on the growth and changes in the structure of Indian capital markets and financial institutions. The book was subsequently updated and revised in 1992. Several books have been written on security analysis and investment in Indian stock markets: Bhalla (1983); Jain (1983), Sahni (1986), Singh (1986); Chandra (1990a), Raghunathan (1991), Avadhani (1992); Yasaswy (1985, 91, 92a, 92b) and Barua et al (1992). These books are primarily written for initiating lay investors to techniques for security analysis and management of investment portfolios. Basu & Dalal (1993), Barua & Varma (1993a) and Ramachandran (1993) have critically examined various facets of the great securities scam of 1992. Several studies, for example, Sahni (1985), Kothari (1986), Raju (1988), Lal (1990), Chandra (1990b), Francis (1991a), Ramesh Gupta (1991a,c, 1992a), Raghunathan (1991), Varma (1992a), L.C. Gupta (1992) and Sinha (1993) comment upon the Indian capital market in general and trading systems in the stock exchanges in particular and suggest that the systems therein are rather antiquated and inefficient, and suffer from major weaknesses and malpractices. According to most of these studies, significant reforms are required if the stock exchanges are to be geared up to the envisaged growth in the Indian capital market. The investment decision making process of individuals has been explored through experiments by Barua and Srinivasan (1986, 1987a, 1991). They conclude that the risk perception of individuals are significantly influenced by the skewness of the return distribution. This implies that while taking investment decisions, investors are concerned about the possibility of maximum losses in addition to the variability of returns. Thus the mean variance framework does not fully explain theinvestment decision making process of individuals. Gupta (1991b) argues that designing a portfolio for a client is much more than merely picking up securities for investment. The portfolio manager needs to understand the psyche of his client while designing his portfolio. According to Gupta, investors in India regard equity debentures and company deposits as being in more or less the same risk category, and consider mutual funds, including all equity funds, almost as safe as bank deposits. Chandra (1989) discusses the mistakes made by individual investors in designing their portfolios and suggests suitable remedial measures. In his recent book, L.C. Gupta (1992) concludes that, a) Indian stock market is highly speculative; b) Indian investors are dissatisfied with the service provided to them by the brokers; c) margins levied by the stock exchanges are inadequate and d) liquidity in a large number of stocks in the Indian markets is very low. While evidently a painstaking work, the conclusions except `c' above seem to be built on wrong or questionable arguments. Mayya (1977), Barua and Raghunathan (1982) and Prabhakar (1989) examined empirically the hedge provided by stocks and bullion against inflation. These studies found that while gold provided complete hedge against inflation, silver and stock were only partial hedges against inflation. Rao and Bhole (1990) arrive at a similar conclusion about stocks. However, as these works pertain to the period prior to the booming 1980's and 1990's, the conclusion that stocks are not an inflation hedge is of doubtful validity today. A similar study covering the more recent years would be very...
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