I. Definition of Cancer
II. Causes and Prevention
III. Cancer Screening Programs
IV. Categories of Cancer Vaccines
V. Ten things You Can Do to Lessen Your Risk of Cancer
Today, there are one in three people worldwide who are affected by cancer, and almost 60% of these people will certainly die. It is the second largest killer next to heart disease. Cancer does not just affect certain groups of people, it can affect anybody and it is not just one disease, it refers to more than a hundred diseases.
Cancer can be defined as any growing mass of cells that is both invasive and metastatic (Steen, 1995). Base on Steen’s definition, it can either originate or continue its growth on a certain part or organ of the body or it will seed cancerous cells in the nearby normal cells. While Braun (1997) referred cancer as “the failure of medicine” .Since, more than millions have died and are dying of cancer without receiving proper medication
All cancers develop because something has gone wrong with one or more of the genes in a cell. But most of these gene changes happen during our lives. They happen as we get older or because of something we are exposed to, such as cigarette smoke or sunlight. These substances, called carcinogens, cause changes in the genes that make body cells more likely to become cancerous. The gene changes don’t affect all body cells. They are not inherited and cannot be passed on to your children (Scotland, 2007).
Using of any type of tobacco puts you on a collision course with cancer. Smoking, mainly of cigarettes, causes cancer of the lung, upper respiratory tract, esophagus, bladder and pancreas and probably of the stomach, liver and kidney. Smoking causes up to 400,000 deaths per year and is responsible for at least 30% of all cancers. And chewing tobacco has been linked to cancer of the oral cavity and pancreas. Even if you don't use tobacco, exposure to secondhand smoke might increase your risk of lung cancer. Avoiding tobacco or deciding to stop using it — is one of the most important health decisions you can make. It's also an important part of cancer prevention (Trichopoulas, 1996).
Some researchers estimate that we could reduce the incidence of some types of cancer if we all ate more healthily. This means general changes to our diets and trying to maintain a healthy weight. Diet has been linked to several types of cancer including cancer of the stomach, breast, lung, prostate, pancreas and bladder. Eating not enough vegetables causes the lack of important fiber and nutrients found in vegetables and high-fat diets tend to be higher in calories and might increase the risk of overweight or obesity — which can, in turn, increase cancer risk. Eating processed foods and vegetables with pesticides also cause slews of health problems like lung cancer (Dalton, 1996).
We now know that alcohol can increase your risk of a number of cancers. A review in 2011 by Cancer Research UK suggests that around 4 out of 100 cancers (4%) are linked to alcohol. It increases the risk of mouth cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, bowel cancer, and throat cancer, which includes pharyngeal cancer, laryngeal cancer and cancer of the food pipe (oesophagus).
The best way to get all the vitamins, minerals and nutrients that we need is to eat a wide variety of foods. No one food can give us all we need. To eat a balanced diet, you should include some fresh fruit and vegetables, some starchy foods and some protein foods every day. To make sure your diet is as healthy as possible you should look at your fibre, fruit and vegetable, fat, salt and alcohol intakes (Weinberg, 1996).
Protecting yourself from the sun can prevent from skin cancer. There are tips that suggest avoiding skin cancer. 1) Avoid midday sun. Stay out of the sun between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., when the sun's rays are...
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