The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs of Islam
First Caliph: Abu Bakr (632-634 C.E.)
Father-in-law of Mohammed and was the first convert to Islam. After the demise of Muhammad, companions of the Prophet assembled and discussed who would be the next leader, it became apparent that no one was better suited for this responsibility than Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr became the Caliph on 632 C.E. His main objective was to maintain the heritage of the Prophet. Contributions to Islam
- Conversion to Islam. His conversion became a milestone in the history of Islam. His conversion proved to be the greatest assurance of the sincerity of Muhammad. - Missionary of Islam. He was the greatest missionary of Islam after the Holy Prophet. Through his efforts, many people from the Quraish tribe were converted to Islam. - Liberation of slaves. Abu Bakr purchased the afflicted slaves who were converted to Islam and set them free. - Psychological crisis. When the Prophet died, the Muslim community was in a psychological crisis. Abu Bakr consoled the people and said that Muhammad is indeed dead but God is alive and will never die. And then he concluded with a verse from the Qur'an: "And Muhammad is but a Messenger. Many Messengers have gone before him; if then he dies or is killed, will you turn back upon your heels?" [3:144] - Apostasy campaigns. After the death of the Muhammad, most of the tribes transferred their allegiance to paganism so Abu Bakr sent one of the Korayih military leader to reconvert these tribes. - Preservation of the Qur'an. Abu Bakr sponsored the compilation of the Qur'an. - Savior of Islam. When Abu Bakr became the Caliph in 632 C.E., Islam was threatened with disintegration. Within a year, Abu Bakr was strong enough to attack the Persian Empire on the northeast and the Byzantine Empire in the northwest. He made Islam a world force which successfully confronted the empires of Persia and Byzantium. Arabia stood unified, and all people in Arabia joined...