C. Calculus Formation
Relationship with Plaque:
* Calculus is formed by the deposition of calcium and phosphate salts in bacterial plaque. These salts are present in salivary and crevicular fluids. * Plaque mineralization begins within 24-72 hours and takes an average of 12 days to mature. * Calculus contributes to the disease by providing foci for plaque accumulation. It is not the causative or etiologic factor, plaque is. * Calculus is porous and can act as a reservoir or nidus of bacteria and endotoxin related to the disease process. * Calculus formation has been observed in germ-free laboratory animals but is far more abundant in similar germ-infected laboratory animals. The role of the bacteria in relation to calculus formation is not completely understood. Plaque is a soft, sticky accumulation that occurs on dental and various other intra-oral surfaces. It is the host to a complex micro-system of micro-organisms whose pathogenicity and virulence cause inflammatory diseases of the gingival & periodontal tissues. Plaque can be removed from tooth surfaces by direct brushing. It is possible to have a mouth with plaque but no calculus Calculus is formed by the deposition of mineral salts in plaque. It is hard and firmly adherent to the tooth surfaces on which it forms and it cannot be removed by brushing. Calculus acts as a focal point for plaque accumulation, a nidus of bacteria and hinders complete removal of plaque. It is almost impossible to have a mouth with calculus but no plaque. We remove plaque and calculus by instrumentation and home care to allow natural immunity to resolve the inflammation and restore health. Plaque Retention Factors

These are conditions that favor plaque accumulation and hinder plaque removal by the patient and the dental professional. Examples of these are: * Orthodontic Appliances
* Partial Dentures
* Malocclusions
* Faulty Restorations
* Calculus
* Deep Pockets
*...

...Describe and evaluate two or more theories for the formation of romantic relationships (8+16 marks)
The similarity theory by Byrne et al 1986 explains the formation of relationships. The essence of this view is that similarity promotes liking. Firstly, you will sort potential partners for dissimilarity, avoiding people who you perceive as a different personality type and attitudes to yourself. Then you chose someone who is most similar to yourself from the remaining. Couples with similar attitudes tend to have longer relationships and the theory states that attitude alignment will take place where on person changes their attitudes to fit in with the other, forming the relationship. This model emphasises similarity of attitude and personality. For example, if two people are serious and hardworking they are more likely to be attracted to eachother than a serious hardworking person and someone whose main interests are having fun and avoiding responsibility. The more similar we are in these terms, the more likely we are to form and maintain a romantic relationship; this makes it easier for communication, potentially less arguing in the relationship and the relationship will be more rewarding. Hill’s longitudinal study supports the similarity theory by looking at 231 couples over a 2 year period and finding that out of the 128 surviving couples, they...

...MALAYSIA CONSTITUTION
The Constitution is a document that contains all of the order of rules and regulations constitute an important policy for removing a country's governance and administration. Determining the constitution of the Kingdom,a form of government and the rights of the people.
The Constitution also contains principles that form the national institutions like the executive, legislative and judicial with the powers and role of each institution within the framework of governance and administration of the nation. Constitutions are designed to be guidelines on the pattern of political and administrative system of governance of a country, as well as provide protection to the people. The Constitution also states that the responsibility and duty of every citizen against the government and the nation.
Generally constitutions are divided into two, written and non-written. Written constitution is the constitution that is collected and compiled in one document, while the Constitution was not written are all the constitutional principles that are not collected in a document such as the laws passed by parliament and court decisions. Malaysia possesses a written legal document that has been developed based on the two previous documents, namely the Federation of Malaya Agreement 1948 and the 1957 Independence Constitution.
Constitution of Malaysia, known as the Federal Constitution contains 183 items, is the supreme law in Malaysia. Constitution of Malaysia also...

...American men did, but Black citizens had
greater difficulty exercising their new voting rights.
(A) restitution
(B) suffrage
(D) initiatives
(E) levies
(C) prodigious
5. Because all members of this organization are
idealists, they ------- any assertion that political
enterprises should be purely -------.
Example:
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
(B) vestigial
(E) kinetic
(A) incantatory
(D) unstinting
compromise . . servility
persevere . . competence
acquiesce . . banality
resign . . autonomy
recant . . conformity
-3-
(B) economical
(C) disaffected
(E) evenhanded
The passages below are followed by questions based on their content; questions following a pair of related passages may also
be based on the relationship between the paired passages. Answer the questions on the basis of what is stated or implied in the
passages and in any introductory material that may be provided.
10. The primary purpose of Passage 2 is to
Questions 9-12 are based on the following passages.
(A) describe a typical day’s work on a scientific
project
(B) report details about an attempt to train wild
chimpanzees
(C) propose an alternative method of studying
animal behavior
(D) convey an unexpected and memorable
insight
(E) relive an unusual and fleeting experience
Passage 1
Because chimpanzees exhibit behavior so remarkably
similar to some human behavior, scientists observing
them in the wild often develop a degree of empathy...

...Describe and evaluate the formation and maintenance of relationships
In the field of psychology, the most common relationships are classified into 3 types:
* Romantic relationship
* Social relationships (Friendship)
* Family relationship
Romantic relationshipsFormation:
According to the Reward/ Need satisfaction theory of Bryne and Clore in the 1970s, some romantic relationship may develop due to their satisfaction and happiness they achieve when spending time with the other partner.
Most people when being asked why they are attracted to their partners would reply back with answers like attentive, attractive, supporting, caring, etc. This suggests that we are more likely to be attracted to people that we are satisfied or gratified to be with. Most stimuli in our lives can be classified into negative and rewarding ones. We tend to search for rewarding stimuli and avoid the negative stimuli. The things that we are most likely going to find rewarding tend to reflect our unsatisfied needs such as the need for company, financial security, an attractive partner and so on. Mutual attractions usually occurs when one meets the other’s needs although one might need company and the other in search for financial security.
Maintenance:
What keeps relationships going? Some relationship never seem to last and...

...The Formation of Romantic Relationships
Reward/ Need Satisfaction Theory (Byrne and Clore, 1970)
-Byrne and Clore proposed a theory which is based on a behavioural approach and consists of two elements “Reward” and “Need”.
-“Reward” is based on the idea of operant condition which means if someone creates a positive feeling in us then we are more likely to be attracted to them.
-“Need” is based on the idea of classical conditioning meaning we associate people with positive events therefore we are more likely to be attracted to a person who we associate happy feelings and experiences with.
-Byrne and Clore believed that the balance of positive and negative feelings is crucial in maintaining relationships: more positive feelings mean the relationship is more likely to succeed.
Similarity Theory
-Byrne, Clore and Smeaton proposed that similarity also has an impact on the formation of relationships; they suggested that the key focus we look for in similarity is personality and attitude.
-They outlined two stages which help people decide who to seek relations with; the first stage involves looking for people who are most dissimilar to us and the second stage involves looking for those who are most similar to us.
-There is a lot of research to support this theory; for instance, Caspi and Herbener found that in married couples, those who were the happiest were those who had...

...Calculus
is the mathematical study of change,[1] in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. It has two major branches, differential calculus (concerning rates of change and slopes of curves), and integralcalculus (concerning accumulation of quantities and the areas under curves); these two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem ofcalculus. Both branches make use of the fundamental notions of convergence of infinite sequences and infinite series to a well-definedlimit. Calculus has widespread uses in science, economics, and engineering and can solve many problems that algebra alone cannot.
Calculus is concerned with comparing quantities which vary in a non-linear way. It is used extensively in science and engineering since many of the things we are studying (like velocity, acceleration, current in a circuit) do not behave in a simple, linear fashion. If quantities are continually changing, we need calculus to study what is going on.
BRANCHES OF CALCULUSCalculus is concerned with comparing quantities which vary in a non-linear way. It is used extensively in science and engineering since many of the things we are studying (like velocity, acceleration, current in a circuit) do not behave in a simple, linear fashion. If...

...No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Code: UCCM1153 Status: Credit Hours: 3 Semester and Year Taught:
Information on Every Subject Name of Subject: Introduction to Calculus and Applications
Pre-requisite (if applicable): None Mode of Delivery: Lecture and Tutorial Valuation: Course Work Final Examination 40% 60%
9. 10.
Teaching Staff: Objective(s) of Subject: • Review the notion of function and its basic properties. • Understand the concepts of derivatives. • Understand linear approximations. • Understand the relationship between integration and differentiation and continuity. Learning Outcomes: After completing this unit, students will be able to: 1. describe the basic ideas concerning functions, their graphs, and ways of transforming and combining them; 2. use the concepts of derivatives to solve problems involving rates of change and approximation of functions; 3. apply the differential calculus to solve optimization problems; 4. relate the integral to the derivative; 5. use the integral to solve problems concerning areas.
11.
12.
Subject Synopsis: This unit covers topics on Functions and Models, Limits and Derivatives, Differentiation Rules, Applications of Differentiation and Integrals.
13.
Subject Outline and Notional Hours: Topic Learning Outcomes 1 L 4 T 1.5 P SL 6.25 TLT 11.75
Topic 1: Functions and Models
• • • • • • Functions Models and curve fitting Transformations, combinations, composition and...

...SOLUTIONS TO SUGGESTED PROBLEMS FROM THE TEXT PART 2
3.5 2 3 4 6 15 18 28 34 36 42 43 44 48 49 3.6 1 2 6 12 17 19 23 30 31 34 38 40 43a 45 51 52 1 4 7 8 10 14 17 19 20 21 22 26 r’(θ) = cosθ – sinθ 2 2 cos θ – sin θ = cos2θ z’= -4sin(4θ) -3cos(2 – 3x) 2 cos(tanθ)/cos θ f’(x) = [-sin(sinx)](cosx) -sinθ w’ = (-cosθ)e y’ = cos(cosx + sinx)(cosx – sinx) 2 T’(θ) = -1 / sin θ x q(x) = e / sin x F(x) = -(1/4)cos(4x)
(a) dy/dt = -(4.9π/6)sin(πt/6) (b) indicates the change in depth of water (a) Graph at end (b) Max on 1 July; 4500; yes; 1 Jan (c) pos 1 April; neg 1 Oct (d) 0 2 2 2 (a) a cosθ + √l – a sin θ (b) i: -2a cm/sec 2 2 2 ii: -a√2 – a / (√l – a /2 cm/sec
28 36 37 42 52a 52b 1 2 4b 5 8 13 17 26a 29 39 41 1 2 3 17 22 29 36 44a 46 49 2 5 8 10 14 16b 21 25 26 27 5.2 1 6 8 10 14
Sketch at end Sketch at the end
x = 0: not max/min x = 3/7: local max x = 1: local min
4.2
-1/3 g decreasing near x = x0 g has local min at x1 Sketch at end Sketch at end x = 4; y = 57
Max: 20 at x = 1 Min: -2 at x = -1; x = 8 Max: 2 at x = 0; x = 3 Min: 16 at x = -1; x = 2 (a) f(1) local min; f(0), f(2) local max (b) f(1) global min; f(2) global max
Global min = 2 at x = 1, No global max D=C r = 3B/(2A) Sketch at end Sketch at end. x = L/2 x = 2a Min: -2amps; Max: 2 amps
(a) xy + πy /8 (b) x + y + πy/2 (c) x = 100/(4 + π); y = 200/(4 + π)
2
2t / (t + 1) 1 / (x – 1) cosα/sinα (lnx) + 1 e . 1/x 1 -sin (lnt) / t 2 2 / (√1 – 4t ) 1 / t lnt 2 1 / (1 + 2u + 2u ) 0.8 -1 ‹ x ‹ 1 1 / ((ln...