Collects numerical data that can be quantified. Research with numbers. Focus on measuring, collecting and drawing relationships through statistical analysis and experimentation. E.g.: questionnaires, interviews and experiments.
Benefits: Objective and reliable, less subject to bias of researcher.
Collecting Information not involving numbers. Focus on small numbers of people and produce and large amount of information about them. E.g.: Observations, Case Studies, interviews documents and questionnaires. Benefits: Assess individual opinions and feelings, able to obtain more detailed information about beliefs, values, feelings and attitudes. Disadvantages: Time consuming, more subjective and open to bias.
formulating a research proposal
Outlines what is to be done, how it will be done and when it will be done. Components:
-why topic is chosen
-Info needed to answer question
-literature to be reviewed
-what methods you will use
-how you will conduct your research
-how long you will spend on each aspect of the report
-survey - process of conducting a study. Uses interviews or questionnaires. Can be few or many people. A wide amount of responses are possible. Can be easy to collate. Questions can be misinterpreted. -interview - talk to people (phone/person) usually one on one but can have a focus group of 3 -8. Answers are recorded. Can be structured or unstructured. Structured is formal and uses predetermined questions. Often brief. Benefits involve being easy to compare answers and shorter amount of time needed. Disadvantages include the lack of room for elaboration by the interviewee, bias and time consuming compared to a survey. Unstructured are informal and use questions as guidelines. Advantages include flexibility, and more open or honest answers. Disadvantages are they are very time consuming, can get irrelevant information and they are harder to compare. -questionnaire - gather information with a planned set of questions. Can be oral or written. Questions can be closed or open. Oral - ask questions and recorded on a tally sheet. Written - respondents record their own answers. Closed - response is limited (multiple choice). Open - can express opinions and make comments. Advantages they are quick and can collect many, they are easy to compare and non threatening. Disadvantage, they are not flexible. - case study - detailed investigation on one issue. Uses a range of methodologies to assemble the range of information needed. Advantages - allows deep understanding, good at how and why, flexible. Disadvantages - require supporting research, subjective, time consuming and easy to be side-tracked. -observation - watching and recording what is seen. Can be participant or non-participant. Participant involves taking part in a group activity and observing from within. This gains more knowledge and disclosure, but researcher is subject to bias, presence may influence group dynamics and is time consuming. Non - participant involves observing a group from outside. It is more objective and easier to record. Members know they are being observed and are influenced, also time consuming. -literature review - involves researching secondary sources that contain material about an issue. Aim to produce background information so the discussion of results makes more sense.
-develop a timeline
-keep a diary
collecting and recording data
-conducting primary research
-conducting secondary research to support
analysing and interpreting data
-makes sense of and gives meaning to...