Many think that women have higher level of job satisfaction than men. In spite of less paying, promotion opportunity, and worse than men in term of hiring, firing, and job content, some studies found that women have more satisfied while some studies reported that men are more satisfied, others found significant indifference (Quinn, Staines and MC McCullough 1974, Mortimer, Finch and Maruyama 1988). According to Quinn, Mangione, and Baldide Mandilovitch (1973) in an analysis of the Working Condition’s Survey (1973), men are satisfied than women with the salary and job’s challenge. However, Penley and Hawkins (1980) found no significant gender differences on satisfaction with pay when they analyse workers in one company. Weaver 1978, Hodson1989 found that determinants of job satisfaction are very similar for women and men. Despite the fact that some studies found women have higher level of job satisfaction than men, there are some evidences that women are more dissatisfied than men in higher occupational level. Discussion
While women’s work conditions and rewards are lower than men in comparable positions, they are reported as satisfied as or more satisfied with their job than men (Fry and Greenfield 1980; Mannheim 1983; Phelan and Phelan 1983; Moore 1985; Bokemeier and Lacy 1986; Hodson 1989; Phelan 1994). However, these researches are inclusive. Even though some researches show women have higher work satisfaction than men, other researches shows exactly opposite results.There are three explanations for the reasons why women often express themselves with high satisfaction though their jobs are worse than men’s. Firstly, because of men and women have value different characteristics of work; they have different evaluations of jobs (Kanter 1977). Occupational prestige, earnings, education, job complexity, e job pressure...are used to evaluate to see what the differences between women and men in job characteristic. The results of the statistical analysis of Randy Hodson, Indiana University at Bloomington, indicate that the female workers in that sample have less occupational prestige, less pressure, less authority on jobs... Some researches show that while men weight heavy in advancement, women weight heavy in relations with co-workers (Analysis of Murray and Atkinson in 1981). Secondly, women focus on their household roles rather than their roles as workers. Hence, they have lower expectation from their works (Veroff, Douvan, and Kulka 1981).Married workers with children are found be happier than who are singles and married without children (report of Crosby, 1982).Her argument is because women focus their attention on their children and their family, they shift attention away from their work. Finally, women may have different personal expectation. They also use different comparison groups to evaluate their jobs. They rarely compare themselves to men. They often compare themselves to women while men compare themselves to men (reports from Crosby, 1982). Or, women may compare themselves to women who is only engaged in housework, thus they feel satisfied with their employment situation (Glenn, Taylor, and Weaver 1977). The three reasons are possible indicating that women’s higher job satisfaction reflects their lower expectations, rather than their jobs are more attractive than men’s. On the other hand, there are some evidences indicating that in higher occupational level, women have the same expectations as men, but due to the inequality in opportunity, they have lower job satisfaction. By analysing the 326 lawyers in the 1990 National Survey of Lawyers’ Career Satisfaction, Charlotte Chiu, university of California, Berkeley, found that women have lower job satisfaction because of less influence and promotional opportunity. Among professionals (Shapiro and Stern, 1973, samples include clinical psychologists, social workers, and medical workers), women have lower job satisfaction. Using statistical tests to...
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