Topics: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Dementia Pages: 13 (3061 words) Published: January 28, 2013
Development Plan for: Registration No: YHE5241

Dem201 Dementia awareness

1.1.1explain what is meant by the term ‘dementia’

Dementia is the progressive decline in cognitive function due to damage or disease in the body beyond what might be expected from normal aging. Unlike Alzheimer's disease, which is a specific change in the brain, dementia is more of a generic term that can include many conditions and various causes.

1.1.2describe the key functions of the brain that are affected by dementia

temporal lobe = responsible foe vision, memory,laugage, hearing,learning frontal lobe = responsible for decision making , problem solving, control behaviour and emotions parietal lobe = responsible for sensory information from the body, also where letters are formed, putting things in order and spatial awareness occipital lobe = responsible for processing information related to vision cerebrum lobe = biggest part of the Brain its role is memory, attention, thought, and our consciousness, senses and movement hippocampus = responsible for memory forming, organizing and storing and emotions

1.1.3explain why depression, delirium and age related memory impairment may be mistaken for dementia

This may be the case because they all share many of the same symptons as dementia, for example: Symptons of depression:
Anxiety, irritability, Delusions
Increased or decreased body movements
Pacing, wringing their hands, pulling or rubbing their hair, body, or clothing Sleep disturbance: difficulty getting to sleep, staying asleep or especially waking up early Changes in appetite: usually loss of appetite but sometimes increased appetite Weight loss or occasionally weight gain

Fatigue, decreased energy
Difficulty concentrating, thinking or making decisions
Slowed speech, slowed responses with pauses before answering, decreased amounts of speech, low or monotonous tones of voice

Symptons of delirium:

Reduced awareness of the environment, this may result in:
An inability to stay focused on a topic or to change topics
Wandering attention Getting stuck on an idea rather than responding to questions or conversation Being easily distracted by unimportant things
Being withdrawn, with little or no activity or little response to the environment Poor thinking skills (cognitive impairment) This may appear as: Poor memory, particularly of recent events
Disorientation, or not knowing where one is, who one is or what time of day it is Difficulty speaking or recalling words
Rambling or nonsense speech
Difficulty understanding speech
Difficulty reading or writing
Behavior changes
Seeing things that don't exist (hallucinations)
Restlessness, agitation, irritability or combative behavior
Disturbed sleep habits
Extreme emotions, such as fear, anxiety, anger or depression Age-related memory impairment
Forgetting where you left things you use regularly, such as glasses or keys. Forgetting names of acquaintances or blocking one memory with a similar one, such as calling a grandson by your son's name.

Occasionally forgetting an appointment.
Having trouble remembering what you've just read, or the details of a conversation. Walking into a room and forgetting why you entered.
Becoming easily distracted.
Not quite being able to retrieve information you have "on the tip of your tongue."

Symptons of dementia

Increasing difficulties with tasks and activities that require concentration and planning memory loss
changes in personality and mood
periods of mental confusion
low attention span
urinary incontinence
stroke-like symptoms, such as muscle weakness or paralysis on one side of the body visual hallucinations (seeing things that are not there)
wandering during the night
slow and unsteady gait (the way that you walk)

Delirium and dementia

Other medical conditions can result in symptoms associated with delirium. Dementia and delirium may be particularly...
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