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International Conference on Technology and Business Management

March 28-30, 2011

A Literature Review on the Impact of Yoga Way of Life on the Reduction of Job Burnout of Managers Sangeetha Vinod Sudhakar B sangeetha.vinod@manipaldubai.com sudhakar@manipaldubai.com Manipal University, Dubai "Burnout is the biggest occupational hazard of the 21st century," Job burnout is debilitating psychological condition which has serious repercussions for an individual’s personal health as also on the organizational effectiveness. Yoga way of life has direct relevance to address the issue of stress and burnout. It is aimed at making managers more evolved individuals with better understanding of their job situation in the overall context of life. The main contribution of this paper is to present a comprehensive literature study in this area and present a description of empirical studies conducted by yesteryear researchers. Keywords: Job Burnout, Stress Management, Yoga Way of Life, Transcendental Meditation (TM)

1. Introduction
At some point in your career, you will experience burnout. Regardless of how much you like your job there will come a time when you just don't feel like doing it anymore. If you could choose between being sick enough to stay home (and not just lying about being sick) and going to work, you would actually choose to be sick. It would be far less aversive than facing your boss, your co-workers, your clients, and your desk. What exactly is burnout? It is defined in Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary as "exhaustion of physical or emotional strength or motivation usually as a result of prolonged stress or frustration." Who's stressed and frustrated? Many people! Mass layoffs are making workers very nervous. Many are afraid of losing their jobs and are therefore working harder and longer hours to prove their worth. Survivors of layoffs have to work harder to fill the gaps left by their departed colleagues. Burnout can also be defined as the end result of stress experienced but not properly coped with, resulting in symptoms of exhaustion, irritation, ineffectiveness, discounting of self and others, and problems of health (hypertension, ulcers and heart problems). Literatures both fiction and nonfiction, has described similar phenomena, including extreme fatigue and loss of idealism and passion of one’s job. In modern corporations, institutions working not-for-profit, and government organizations, one of the important concerns is the issue of burnout that employees experience at their workplace. This has serious consequences including reduced productivity at workplace, bad health, and mental stress for the employee. If not addressed effectively, this can threaten to manifest as a social problem at a later time. Recent research has identified the negative impact that burnout has on both the employees and organizations. Louise (2008) observed that the lifetime prevalence of an emotional disorder is more than 50 per cent, often due to chronic, untreated stress reactions. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) declared stress as a hazard of the workplace. Stress costs American industry more than $300 billion annually. In the physiology and management literature, job stress is usually defined as a characteristic of the individual, i.e., the psychophysiological changes experienced as a consequence of job related demands on the individual. Stress management refers to the adaptive behavior of changing any aspect of the environment or person in such a way as to decrease stress response (sometimes referred to as “strain”) and promote organizational and/or individual health. The Yoga way of life has direct relevance to address the issue of stress and burnout.

2. Stress and Burnout: Causes and Impact
Maslach and Jackson (1981) conceptualized burnout as a syndrome consisting of three components. Emotional exhaustion refers to mental and physical tension and strain resulting from job related stressors....
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