Changes witnessed over the last few years on mode of packaging and its economic impact. 1. The changes in transportation of fruits and vegetables such as cardboard crates being used in place of wooden crates, etc. Reasons for above changes. Disadvantages of wooden crates-
* After wooden pallets are used several times, the wood begins to wear. It splinters, cracks and even breaks under the pressure of continued use. The deterioration is natural and occurs eventually, even if the wood is treated to repel moisture and to strengthen it. This disadvantage leads to replacement much sooner than with plastic pallets. Infestation
* Wooden pallets are more susceptible to infestation by termites, ants and other insects that make their home inside the wood. Pallets stored outdoors are more likely to succumb to infestation than the ones kept within a warehouse. The insects burrow into the wood, eating away at it and thus weakening what should be a support structure.. Cleanliness
* In addition to germs, wooden pallets are collectors of dirt and debris. Cleaning them becomes more and more difficult over time as the pallets age. They must be heat-treated to get rid of the contamination and washed to be rid of dirt and debris. However, the heat accelerates deterioration, and the water, if improperly dried, can feed mold spores that thrive on wood and harm the vegetables and fruits inside it.
Advantages of cardboard crates-
* As packaging, cardboard protects vegetables being shipped or moved. Corrugated cardboard often has multiple pieces of cardboard placed on top of each other to cushion soft vegetables. Cheap Material
* Cardboard is cheap to produce, and is usually made from recycled materials and doesn't cost much money if purchased wholesale. Other packaging materials are made from plastic, wood or metal, all expensive materials that are often heavier then cardboard, which adds to shipping costs. Easily Sealed
* Cardboard can be sealed firmly as a package in a number of different ways. Use metal staples to hold cardboard together, as it is thick and doesn't easily tear if a package is dropped or falls to the ground.
* Some pieces of cardboard are incredibly rigid and heavy, to protect what they're packaging, while other cardboard varieties can be wrapped around items so that material isn't wasted and the package isn't bulky or difficult to ship or store.
2. Milk being supplied in glass bottles later in plastic bags and now in tetra. Disadvantages of glass milk bottles-
Milk bottle collection, washing, loss, theft and breakage were a significant cost to dairies. In cold climates bottle breakage was a problem due to freezing temperatures while the bottle sat on the porch. Many milk bottles were broken by accident during collection, washing and filling. Damage was also an issue. Many bottles had small chips and flakes off the glass but were still returned to service. Bottle users often kept (or stole from the dairies point of view) glass bottles to use around the home for other foods or even toxic materials in the shop.
Collection of glass milk bottles was also an expense. The empty milk bottles took up space in the wagon or truck and added extra weight. Dirty milk bottles were in close proximity to the fresh, clean bottles. Dairies in many cities formed bottle exchanges to recover milk bottles from various sources such as dumps or markets and return them to the dairy that owned the bottle. There also was the issue of sanitation with glass bottles that were to be reused. Disadvantages of milk in plastic bags-
Milk bags sometimes puncture or burst, are weaker than milk jugs, and have thin linings. When pouring, the top of the bag can also topple over, causing the milk to spill. Spillage can be avoided by cutting a secondary hole at the other side of the bag for air intake, by pinching the top of the...