Business Management

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Business Management
The world of business has undergone radical and dramatic changes in the last decade, changes that present extraordinary challenges for the contemporary manager. A manager is an organizational member who is responsible for planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the activities of the organization so that the goals can be achieved. According to a widely referenced study by Henry Mintzberg, managers serve three primary roles: interpersonal, informational, and decision-making. Management is process of administrating and coordinating resources effectively and efficiently in an effort to achieve the goals of the organization. The concept of management within an organization typically occurs in an organizational setting. Traditional managers discharge their responsibilities through planning, organizing, leading and controlling or coordinating their employees (Newens 1). Organizations compromise a group of individuals who work together toward common goals. The concept of management within an organization can also be looked upon as a context as well as a process. Managers at all levels of the organizational hierarchy must engage in planning. Planning involves estimating future conditions and circumstances and, based on these estimations, making decisions about what work is to be done by the manager and all of those for whom she or he is responsible (Black 21). In planning the top-level manager establishes the overall goals and strategies for the organization. While on the other hand the other managers in the hierarchy develop operational plans for their work groups, which have a responsibility to help the organization. Organization planning is a natural complement to the personnel responsibility for career development, management appraisals and salary structures (Cadbury 24). All the managers must develop goals that are supportive in the overall strategy of the organization. In organizing, responsibilities must be assigned to specific employees to avoid accountability gaps that will keep the operating plan from being executed properly (Newens 1). Organizing involves determining the tasks to be done, which will do them, and how those tasks will be managed and coordinated. Managers of an organization have to put a work team together so that proper information, resources, and tasks can flow properly and efficiently in an organization. Managers should be able to lead the members of their work groups toward the accomplishment of the organization’s goals. Organizational leadership is an interpersonal process involving attempts to influence other people in attaining some goal (Black 402). In order for leaders and managers to be effective, they must understand the dynamics of individual and group behavior, to be able to motivate their employees, and be effective communicators. It is said that a good leader can communicate very well with their employees as well as their customers. Managers should observe the performance of the organization, as well as their progress in implementing strategic and operational plans. Controlling is monitoring the performance of the organization, identifying deviations between planned and actual results, and taking corrective action when necessary. With all these four functions that are involved in the process of management, if all are followed correctly the organization will be properly run and will have few complications. In every organization there are managers, and every manager is classed on different levels in terms of the skills they need and the activities they are involved in. The pyramid type of company hierarchy divides people vertically by function and horizontally by status and so puts a portcullis in the way of new entrants, particularly if they are in technical departments: yet these are likely to be just the people with ideas that the company needs (Cadbury 16). Managers exist at various levels in the organization hierarchy. A small organization may have one layer...
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