Business Leadership Exam Review

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Business Leadership Exam Review
Section 2.1 - Thinking
* Continuing transformation of the modern workplace through: * The internet
* World Wide Web
* Computers
* Information Technology
* Increasing demand for knowledge workers with the skills to fully utilize technology.

* National Boundaries of world business have largely disappeared. * Globalization is the worldwide interdependence of resource flows, product market and business competition that characterize the new economy.

* Workplace diversity reflects differences with respect to gender, age, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation and able bodiedness. * A diverse and multicultural workforce both challenges and offers opportunities to employers.

Section 2.2 - Thinking
Industrial Era
Scientific Management
* Core idea is to give workers menial jobs to lead to the creation of a whole product * It is to structure and reduce confusion in the workplace, was meant for factory work.

Weber’s Bureaucratic Organization
* Believed that bureaucracy which is a form of organization could solve problems. * Characteristics of Weber’s bureaucratic organization are: * Clear division of labor: Jobs are well defined and workers become highly skilled at performing them. * Clear hierarchy of authority: Authority and responsibility are well defined for each position and each position reports to a higher level. * Formal rule and procedures: Written guidelines direct behavior and decisions in jobs and written files are kept for historical records. * Impersonality: Rules and procedures are impartially and uniformly applied with no one receiving preferential treatment. * Career based on merit: Workers are selected and promoted on ability and performance, and managers are career employees of the organization.

Middle Era
Mary Folett
* Interrelatedness - 'coactive' as opposed to coercive
* Power with an emphasis on 'power-with' rather than 'power-over' people; where the 'situation' will dictate the action that needs to be taken * A community-based approach with the idea that natural leaders are born within the group * The leader guides and in turn is guided by the group

* Teaching is carried out by leading
* A skillful leader influences by stimulating others
* The idea of fluid leadership where leaders and followers are in a relationship and the role of leader flows to where it is needed - informal leadership is in the workplace Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

* A need is a physiological or psychological deficiency a person feels the compulsion to satisfy. This is a significant concept for managers because needs create tensions that can influence a person’s work attitudes and behaviors. * Maslow identified 5 levels human needs. Highest to lowest, they are: 1. Self – Actualization needs

2. Esteem needs
3. Social needs
4. Safety needs
5. Physiological needs

Henri Fayol’s Administrative Principles
* Theories of 6 types of operations, 9 levels, 5 elements of administration, 14 principles of administration, 16 management duties and 7 qualities of managers. * Division of Labor – specialization of work will result in continuous improvements in skill and labor. * Espirit de Corps – work to build harmony and cohesion among personnel. * Equity – managers should be kind and fair.

* Order – there is a place for everything and all things should be in their place.

Hawthorn Effect
* Main concept of the research program was to make amends to the tradition work ethics. * The influence of the study conducted led to the discovery of the Hawthorne Effect, is a change in the way people may perform because of how they were presented with special attention.

Argyrls’s Theory of Adult Personality
* He believes that managers that treat their employees with a positive attitude, and are responsible adults...
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