1. Define the concept information system and its constitutive elements; describe the broad categories of computer-based information systems, providing relevant business examples for each category identified;
explain how computer-based information systems can support managers at each level of an organisation.
2. Explain the main elements and steps of the project management process and, considering your essay writing as a project, provide a concrete description including numbers for that project; relate the main project management steps to the main phases of the systems development life cycle model; how are the life cycle phases handled in the V-model and the spiral model?
3. What is the Information Systems and Information Technology Function in an organization; what needs to be managed;
how can the IS/IT function be organized;
what does outsourcing mean and which role does it play in this context?
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To understand and define an Information System (IS) thoroughly, it’s important to separate the two words and understand them separately. Information is produced by processing data so that it is meaningful which can be not only understood by the recipient but also used to meet a specific goal or requirement. To understand information, data needs to be understood as well. Data are raw facts like a specific date or measurement. Data needs to be processed and transformed into information; this process is called the ´´transformation process´´. E.g. data regarding sales of a firm is useless unless putting it in the correct context. But if you sort the sales after type of product, you will be able to see what product has been sold the most. By using data to gain relevant information, it’s possible to reduce the uncertainty of different questions and thereby improve the decision making. A system can be found in every part of the world. A system is a set of interrelated components that work together towards a common goal. The solar system might not a have an obvious goal while a firm might have several goals like gaining profit or making the best product possible. To achieve these specific goals the system will need to obtain inputs and transform these into outputs, like described in the transformation process, data is seen as the input and information as the output. But to transform input into output isn’t enough. The output needs to be relevant compared to the objective(s) of the firm. For systems to be more effective the system can contain a feedback and control stage as well. By using the information we have just gathered it’s possible to define IS. IS is defined as the way people and organizations are gathering, storing and processing information. In a business the IS will contribute to making the correct decisions. But IS isn’t solely used for managers and workers’ decision making it can also be used in other ways, like feedback for an organization’s quality.
Computer-based information systems
Today most IS involve Information Technology (IT) to create management information also called computer-based information systems. This is because of the many disadvantages it gives not having a computer-based information system. An IS can be divided into two categories called Operations Information Systems (OIS) and Management Information System (MIS). OIS contains 3 sub-systems each contributing in the daily running of a business. The 3 sub-systems of the OIS are: The Transaction Processing System (TPS), Office Automation Systems (OAS) and the Process Control Systems. The TPS is managing the many transactions occurring on daily basis on the operational level of an organization like withdrawal of money from an ATM, or orders and payments for goods and services. Even though the TPS is marked by a lot of repetitive tasks and routine, the function of it is essential and...